Demographic history of various advanced countries shows that there is an inverse relationship between per-capita income and a country’s birth rate. When per-capita income increases, people don’t desire more children in order supplement their income. In other words, with increase in per-capita income, people feel more secure and do not want to depend on their children. Dumont, a noted demographer has developed the “Social Capillarity Thesis” to explain this relationship between birthrate and per-capita income. Therefore, rapid economic development is very much essential to control the already high birth rate. However, this increase in per-capita income will have its positive impact on birth rate after a period after a period of time.
2. Urbanization and Industrialization
In the Indian society we have joint family system which encourages a high birth rate. Hence this joint family has to be replaced by nucleus family. A nucleus family is generally found in an urbanized and industrialized economy. Hence our efforts should be to industrialize and urbanize our economy to reduce the high birth rate.
3. Late Marriage
In India girls marry at an early age and a longer span of time to reduce children. Hence we have to raise the minimum age to marriage in our country in order to control the birth rate. A UN report has pointed out, there would be a significant decline of birth of seven per thousand, if the average age of marriage of females were to rise from 16 to 20years.
4. Lowering Infant Mortality Rate
In India, infant mortality rate is very high and stands at 72 per thousand. Poor people, in order to ensure that some children do survive, reproduce more. Therefore, widespread vaccination...