Pompeii and Herculaneum Notes

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AD 79 covered Pompeii and Herculaneum in ash. It was like a snap shot in history. Pompeii is well preserved.

Pre- Roman Pompeii
8th century BC – Greeks from Cumae colony establish a small but permanent settlement in the region of Pompeii. 7th century BC – Etruscan influences begins to influence the style of the early town of Pompeii as the northern tribe gains strength. 6th century BC- The 1st grandiose structures were constructed in Pompeii such as the Temples of Apollo. 5th century BC- Pompeii expands after the Etruscans defeat but the Cumean Greeks. The city now sprawls in over 65ha instead of 10. End of the 5th century – The entirety of the Italian tribesmen. Pompeii is conquered by the Samnite tribes, a loose confederation of peoples. 3rd century – Intertribal warfare around the area sees the Cumpani tribe call on Roman aid to stop the wars.

Roman Pompeii
90-89 BC - Pompeii forms on of the strongholds of the Italian Allies in the Social Wars. They are defeated and turned into a colony while Herculaneum becomes a municipium: (Independent City which had its own democratic government and paid taxes to Rome). 71 BC to AD1 – The aristocrats of the town embark on a massive buildings and renovation program while would see the modernisation of Pompeii’s buildings as well as prove their loyalty to Pompeii. AD 59 – Pompeii is now a thriving town however a riot at a gladiatorial match sees a ban imposed on such spectacles for 10 years. AD 62 – A severe earthquake damages Pompeii and even 17 years later only 2 major public buildings were built: the Amphitheatre and the Temple of Isis. AD 79 – The temple of Apollo rears completion of its reconstruction, work had also begun on the public baths, theatre, Doric Temple, water supply and most of private villas. August 25-25 AD 79 – Ve Suvius erupts, coverings the town of Pompeii in ash.

* Herculaneum, pyroclastic flow, 23m of boiling mud.
* 3.5m of Ash.

1. What countries did Rome control in AD 79?
- Herculaneum, Pompeii, Italy, Romania.

2. What is the difference between a colony and municipium?
- A colony is a large group of people with no legal structure with no set out rules and regulations whereas municipium is a very large group of people who have a structure such as a government policy and taxing system.

3. Which of the sister cities was more successful at the time of the eruption? - Herculaneum because of wind direction and some early warning.

*DOMENICO FONTANA found the city of Pompeii in 1599 not on purpose. It was accidental, because of his intention to divert the river Samo.

Fresco – is a mural executed upon freshly laid plaster.
Mosaic – creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of coloured glass, stone or other materials: decretive art, interior decoration.

Atrium – The main hall of a traditional Roman house. Completely roofed, or have an opening in the middle of its roof and a water tank beneath. Biclinium – The dining room of a Roman house so called because of the two banqueting couches arranged around the walls. Caryatid – A sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column of pillar. Ergastulum – A building to hold dangerous slaves or punish them, built as a deep roofed pit has enough room for slaves to do their thang. Destrictarium - A room to crape of dirt from the back with oils and a strigil.

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, usually known as Pliny the Younger, was at Como in 62 AD.

He was only 8 years old when his father Caecilius died and he was adopted by his uncle, the elder Pliny, author of the “Natural History”.

He was carefully educated, studying rhetoric under Quintilian and other famous teachers and he became the most eloquent pleader of his time.

What are some of the embellishments he makes during his recounting to Tacitus? His uncle dined and bathed while the city was alight, this shouldn’t be true. Any decent human being would run for his life instead of...
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