WHAT WERE THE EFFECTS OF WORLD WAR II UPON THE MAJOR WORLD POWERS; UPON GERMANY, JAPAN, ENGLAND, FRANCE, THE SOVIET UNION, AND THE UNITED STATES?
--UPON THE NON-EUROPEAN WORLD?
--UPON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?
--UPON INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS?
Germany was totally defeated, and the Nazi regime brought down. Its leaders were tried for crimes against humanity at Nuremberg, the former site of Nazi propaganda triumphs. Hitler escaped trial and execution by committing suicide in his Berlin bunker at the end of the war. German cities were in ruins from a massive bombing campaign. Germany was divided into 4 zones of occupation by the victorious powers, pending a more permanent political settlement. Japan also was in ruins from extensive bombing. Prominent military leaders were tried and convicted of war crimes, but the emperor was allowed to retain his position. Japan was temporarily placed under U.S. military rule.
England was devastated by the war, having experienced extensive bombing during the 1940 blitz by the Germans. The economy depended for recovery upon aid from the United States. England rapidly phased out most of its remaining imperial holdings in the years immediately following the war. France had not experienced the enormous human losses sustained in the First World War, but would have to recover from the effects of Nazi occupation. Retribution was taken upon collaborators. Like England, France would be compelled to dismantle its colonial empire in the years following the war. This was a particularly traumatic and drawn out process for the French, in Algeria and in Vietnam where they fought prolonged and bitter wars in an attempt to maintain their colonial control. England and France no longer held a status of power comparable either to the United States or the Soviet Union. The Russian people had suffered immeasurably during the war, and western Russia was devastated by the land warfare which...