It had already been established that when fragrance molecules wafting downwind meet up with air pollutants, chemical reactions alter the floral scents the fate of three common volatile hydrocarbons emitted by flowers as they encountered increasing levels of ozone, hydroxyl radicals, and nitrate radicals. The researchers plugged these data into a model to test different air pollution scenarios ranging from conditions that prevailed during the 1840s to current summertime conditions in large eastern U.S. cities, where ozone levels can exceed 120 ppb by volume. Under 1840s conditions, only 20% of scents were altered by chemical reactions within a 1,000-meter radius downwind of the floral source. In the most polluted scenario, only 25% of the scents survived 300 meters downwind.Today, more than 842 million people - nearly three times the population of the United States - are chronically hungry. 43 "Chronic hunger is a profound, debilitating human experience that affects the ability of individuals to work productively, think clearly, and resist disease. it drains economies, destabilizes governments, and reaches across international boundaries." millions are undernourished The food security issues are a global concern. hunger is one of the greatest problems the international community is facingFood security deserves its place in any long-term calculation regarding global security. Widespread chronic hunger causes widespread instability and debilitating poverty and decreases all of our safety, Food insecurity, therefore, causes global insecurity because widespread instability threatens all of our safety. China pollinates by hand now
A third of global farm output depends on animal pollination, largely by honey bees. These foods provide 35pc of our calories, most of our minerals, vitamins, and anti-oxidants, and the foundations of gastronomy. Yet the bees are dying – or being killed – at a disturbing pace. The story of "colony collapse disorder" (CCD) is already well-known to readers of The Daily Telegraph. Some keep hives at home and have experienced this mystery plague, .Albert Einstein, who liked to make bold claims famously said that "if the bee disappeared off the surface of the globe, man would have only four years to live".China has its own problems. Crops are now pollinated by hand using feather brushes, a laborious process as one bee colony can pollinate up to 300million flowers a day. Einstein was not wrong. US pollutants are on the declineSpectroscopic images from remote-sensing satelliteshave revealed a decreasing concentration of nitrogen oxides and nitric acid, precursors to ozone. Scientists at NOAA confirmed pollution controls put in place 10 years ago are impacting us today. The air is cleaner in the regions where we have reduced emissions of a key pollutant.The 10 years of before-and-after data revealed a 40 percent reduction in pollution. Satellites have detected a 38% decline in nitrogen dioxide in thestates between 1999 and 2005, itrogen dioxide and nitric oxides are two gases that form a group of pollutants known as nitrogen oxides, When combined with other gases and sunlight, they form ozone, a major air pollutant in smog. Ground-The NOAA study is the first to verify from space that these single-point reductions have had a measurable impact on the atmosphere across the entire region.
Cars are the largest source of pollution in the US
Transportation is the largest single source of air pollution in the United States. It causes over half of the carbon monoxide, over a third of the nitrogen oxides, and almost a quarter of the hydrocarbons in our atmosphere in 2006. ir pollution is associated with the full life-cycle of cars and trucks. This includes air pollution emitted during vehicle operation, refueling, manufacturing, and disposal. Motor vehicles cause both primary and secondary pollution. Nor is vehicles good for the environment because buses and Diesel-powered commuter trains burn fossil fuels...
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