Definition of Plagiarism
The Indiana University Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct (2005) indicates that students may be disciplined for several different kinds of academic misconduct. These include cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, interference, and violation of course rules. In particular the code states:
Plagiarism is defined as presenting someone else's work, including the work of other students, as one's own. Any ideas or materials taken from another source for either written or oral use must be fully acknowledged, unless the information is common knowledge. What is considered "common knowledge" may differ from course to course. a. A student must not adopt or reproduce ideas, opinions, theories, formulas, graphics, or pictures of another person without acknowledgment. b. A student must give credit to the originality of others and acknowledge an indebtedness whenever: 1. Directly quoting another person's actual words, whether oral or written; 2. Using another person's ideas, opinions, or theories;
3. Paraphrasing the words, ideas, opinions, or theories of others, whether oral or written; 4. Borrowing facts, statistics, or illustrative material; or 5. Offering materials assembled or collected by others in the form of projects or collections without acknowledgment. (quoted from Code of Student Rights, Responsibilities, and Conduct, Part II, Student Responsibilities, Academic Misconduct, By action of the University Faculty Council (April 12, 2005) and the Trustees of Indiana University (June 24, 2005).) Overview
In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when
* You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories. * You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge. * You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word. * You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word. Recommendations
* Begin the writing process by stating your ideas; then go back to the author's original work. * Use quotation marks and credit the source (author) when you copy exact wording. * Use your own words (paraphrase) instead of copying directly when possible. * Even when you paraphrase another author's writings, you must give credit to that author. * If the form of citation and reference are not correct, the attribution to the original author is likely to be incomplete. Therefore, improper use of style can result in plagiarism. Get a style manual and use it. * The figure below may help to guide your decisions.
Plagiarism in Colleges in the USA
Famous Examples of Alleged Plagiarism: based on research by J. P. Lesko The Case of Plagiarism Concerning Papers Submitted to EURO-PAR 95 Plagiarism in the News
Word for Word | Paraphrasing
Example 1 of 5
A word-for-word example of plagiarism is one in which the writer directly quotes a passage or passages from an author's work without the use of proper quotation marks. Read the example carefully!
Original Source Material: Technology has significantly transformed education at several major turning points in our history. In the broadest sense, the first technology was the primitive modes of communication used by prehistoric people before the development of spoken language. Mime, gestures, grunts, and drawing of figures in the sand with a stick were methods used to communicate -- yes, even to educate. Even without speech, these prehistoric people were able to teach their young how to catch animals for food, what animals to avoid, which vegetation was good to eat and which was poisonous. | Source: Frick, T. (1991). Restructuring education through technology. Bloomington, IN: Phi Delta Kappa Educational Foundation. |
Plagiarized Version| Correct Version|
In examining technology, we have to remember that computers are not the first technology people...