Introduction to Philosophy Finals Reflection Output
Knowledge is formed and acquired in the course of our life though cognition and it is not inborn and develops from our own ignorance. John Locke compared it with tabula rasa or some sort of a blank sheet upon which nothing is written. These are Data or images of the object which stimulated our sense-organs-sight, hearing, touch, taste and smell are, in a manner of speaking, raw-materials which our brain forms, through abstraction, into concepts or ideas, and which we express in signs or language. There are two obstacles to cognition the biases which becloud the human mind as “IDOLS” and the errors in reasoning which are the so called fallacies. Reasoning is a means for acquiring knowledge but if it is fallacious it cannot yield but deception. Moreover there are three theories of knowledge namely; empiricism, rationalism and intuitionism. In empiricism, knowledge comes from experience and experience is a sense of perception which may be understood as direct observation by the senses or indirect by using instrument or by experimentation. Empiricism teaches that what we see, hear, touch, or smell, is all that we can know. Outstanding exponents of Empiricism were John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume and the so-called Linguistic philosophers. Rationalism maintains that reason is the source and test of knowledge and not sense-perception. Knowledge consists of concepts which generalize about the nature of reality so that it has a universal and permanent character. It is the reason or the intellect which “manufactures” the data into concepts, judgments and laws, and that is how our knowledge is formed. What we know is “what we have thought out”, or what reason has “abstracted” from the data of sense perception. The known defenders are Parmenides, Plato of Ancient Greece, Descartes and Hegel of the modern world. The third theory which is intuitionism claims that the senses can only mirror the appearance of things hence what we call sense-data, cannot tell us what things are in themselves. But through intuition, we can have “a feel” of what lies beyond the phenomena captured by our senses and transformed by reason into conceptual symbols. Intuition “intuere” (to look into) is a direct apprehension of knowledge which is not the result of conscious reasoning or immediate perception. Add the facts that there are two methods of intellectual inquiry, first is the intuition that grasps the essential nature of reality and “time” and the second is analysis which is the stability and predictability, but offers only “a photograph” or “a snapshot” of what is essentially a dynamic, active world The only way to bridge the distance between the “object known” and “the knower”, we must use “intellectual sympathy” that experiences being as a whole, as “a dynamic continuum”. Lastly, there are different notions of truth namely the Correspondence Theory, Coherence Theory, Pragmatic Theory and the Marxist Theory. EDUCATION:
The word education comes from the Latin verb “educere” (to lead) or from “educare” (draw out). Education is the art of leading or guiding a person to social culture so that by exposing him to its complexities and he may actualize his potentialities. Every person, regardless of race, gender or class has a dormant power which if drawn out or developed could equip the individual to fill a variety of roles in society. Education and training is of different meaning. Education has to do with the development of the whole personality while training deals with the gaining and achieving of skills. There are aims of education; first is to prepare the young for “citizenship”-the subtle means of providing the state in along run with future leaders and followers who would put interest of the state and nation above self. Second aim...
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