The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of more than 7,000 islands and islets stretching almost a thousand miles from north to south. * Land Surface – is 114,830 square statute miles and is criss-crossed with mountains and drained by small river systems. Mountain System
Three large ranges in the mountain system of Luzon
* Caraballo del Sur – forms the nucleus of the system, has its highest peak at the intersection of the boundaries of Abra, Ilocos Norte, and Cagayan. * Caraballos Occidentales divide into the Cordillera Norte and Cordillera Central and traverse the region west of the Cagayan River. * Sierra Madre also known as the Pacific coast range begins at Baler, Quezon, and crosses Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, and Cagayan. * This is the longest continuous range in the Philippines. * Zambales range starts at Cape Bolinao and follows the China Sea coast to the Bataan Peninsula. * The Tagaytay range passes through Cavite and Batangas and, with Mt. Makiling, forms the mountain system of the southern Tagalog region. * The Mindoro mountain range begins at Mt. Halcon and is divided into three ranges : * The northwest ending at Calavite Point
* A landmark of ships passing between Manila Bay and Mindoro Strait * The east, which originates from Lake Naujan; and the west, which follows the Mindoro Strait. * Negros in the Visayas is divided into two by a range running from northwest to southeast, with Kanlaon Volcano as the notable peak. Mindanao four distinct ranges
* Surigao Range - which follows the contours of the Pacific coast * Butuan Range – which extends to the south and forms the watershed of the Agusan River on the east and the Pulangui River on the west. * Central – Western – ranges of which Mt. Apo is the highest; and the western range which begins west of Iligan Bay and ends on the shore of Basilan Strait.
The Philippines has extensive but small river systems which are mostly delineated by the mountain ranges. * Luzon fluvial system is represented by :
* Rio Grande de Cagayan and its tributaries – which drain the Cagayan Valley * Agno Grande – which drains Benguet and the valleys of Nueva Ecija, Pangasinan, and tarlac * Abra River system – which receives its tributaries from the Cordillera and drains Lepanto, Bontoc, and Abra. * Rio Grande de Pampanga and its tributaries - which drain the fertile valleys of Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Bulacan. Mindanao has the largest river system in the Philippines. The Rio Grande de Mindanao drains the central basin of Mindanao and receives waters of two lakes. Agusan, which is second to the Rio Grande, drains the basin of Surigao. Volcanoes and Earthquakes
Volcanoes dot the thre geographic regions of the country and have been for centuries one of the natural causes of destruction of life and property. Most famous Volcanoes from north to south
* Iraya – in Batanes Island
* Taal – in Batangas. The smallest in the world and situated in the middle of Taal Lake, erupted no less than thirty- three times. * Banahaw – in Quezon
* Mayon – in Albay
* Hibok – Hibok - in camiguin
* Makaturing – in Lanao
* Apo – in Davao
* Mayon – the most active volcano. It has erupted more than thirty times since 1615. 1937- Manila experience severe earthquake, when many buildings in the commercial district were partly destroyed. August 2, 1968 – was so violent earthquake that an apartment building collapsed, killing hundreds of people. June 3, 1863- The most destructive earthquakes occurred in Philippine history, when the Manila Cathedral and hundreds of government structures and residential houses collapsed and many people were killed, including the the famous Filipino priest, Dr. Pedro Pablo Pelaez. April 1, 1955- Another Destructive earthquake when the Visayas and Mindanao were rocked by a series of quakes ranging from Intensity III to Intensity VIII. August 17,...