Pharmaceautical Lotions

Topics: Emulsion, Dosage forms, Lotion Pages: 7 (1252 words) Published: September 16, 2013
PHARMACEUTICAL LOTIONS

INTRODUCTION

Lotions are usually liquid suspensions or dispersions. They consist of finely powdered, insoluble solids held in more or less permanent suspension by the presence of suspending agents and/or surfactants. Calamine Lotion (USP) is the classic example of this type of preparation. It can be prepared by triturating the ingredients into a smooth paste and then adding the remaining liquid phase. This procedure can be done manually by using pestle and mortar. However, high shear mixer or homogenizer can often produce a better dispersion.

EXAMPLES OF LOTIONS

Calamine Lotion
Composition: calamine 8 g, zinc oxide 8 g, glycerin 2 mL, Avicel R Gel 2 g, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) 2 g and calcium hydroxide solution about 50 mL.
Procedure
(1) Disperse Avicel R into 55 g of water to form a gel,
(2) Mix the calamine, zinc oxide with the glycerin, the gel and the CMC, (3) Add sufficient amount of calcium hydroxide solution to make the final volume of 100 mL Calamine (Topical)
Category:

Skin protectant—{01}{09}{12}

antipruritic (topical){02}{04}{08}—

Indications

Accepted

Skin irritations, minor (treatment)—Calamine is indicated for the topical relief of itching, pain, and discomfort {02} {04} {08} of minor skin irritations, {09} {13} such as those caused by poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac {08}. —Calamine also has a mild astringent action on the skin {02} {04} {08} {11} and dries oozing and weeping caused by poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac {01} {09}.

Pharmacology/Pharmacokinetics

Physicochemical characteristics:

Calamine consists of a mixture of zinc oxide (not less than 98% and not more than 100.5%) and a small proportion of ferric oxide {10}.

Mechanism of action/Effect:

Unknown {06}.

Absorption:

Calamine applied topically is not absorbed through the skin {06}.

Precautions to Consider

Pregnancy/Reproduction

Problems in humans have not been documented {06}.

Breast-feeding

Problems in humans have not been documented {06}.

Pediatrics

Appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of calamine have not been performed in the pediatric population. However, no pediatrics-specific problems have been documented to date {06} {14}.

Geriatrics

Appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of calamine have not been performed in the geriatric population. However, no geriatrics-specific problems have been documented to date {06}.

Patient Consultation
As an aid to patient consultation, refer to Advice for the Patient, Calamine (Topical).

In providing consultation, consider emphasizing the following selected information (» = major clinical significance):

Proper use of this medication
For external use only; {01} {08} {09} {13} keeping away from eyes {01} {04} {08} {09} and other mucous membranes such as the mouth, nose, and anogenital region {04}

» To apply the lotion: shaking lotion well before use; using a pledget of cotton moistened with calamine and allowing to dry after application

» To apply the ointment: applying enough medication to cover affected area(s) of skin and rubbing in gently

» Proper dosing

» Proper storage{01}{09}{13}

Precautions while using this medication
Discontinuing use and checking with physician if condition worsens, or does not improve within 7 days {01} {08} {09}, or if rash, irritation, or sensitivity develops {08}

General Dosing Information
Calamine is for external use only {01} {08} {09} {13}; contact with the eyes {01} {04} {08} {09} and other mucous membranes should be avoided {04}.

Calamine lotion should be applied to the affected area(s) of skin with a cotton pledget moistened with the lotion. Then the medication should be allowed to dry on the skin {09} {13}.

A sufficient amount of calamine ointment should be applied to cover the affected area(s) of skin and rubbed in gently.

Treatment should be discontinued and the...
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