A Brief Background of Lithuania
Republic of Lithuania is a country situated in northern Europe. It is situated to the east of Sweden and Denmark and borders Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Lithuania has an estimated population of 3 million as of 2012, and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. The Lithuanians are a Baltic people, and their official language is Lithuanian. Lithuania was inhabited by various Baltic tribes before it was united in 1230 by Mindaugas, who was crowned as King of the Lithuania, creating the first unified Lithuanian state, on 6 July 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe. Present day Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia were territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. With the Lublin Union of 1569, Lithuania and Poland formed a voluntary two-state union, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Commonwealth lasted more than two centuries, until neighboring countries systematically dismantled it from 1772 to 1795, with the Russian Empire annexing most of Lithuania's territory. In the aftermath of World War I, Lithuania's Act of Independence was signed on 16 February 1918, declaring the re-establishment of a sovereign state. Starting in 1940, Lithuania was occupied first by the Soviet Union and then by Nazi Germany. As World War II neared its end in 1944 and the Germans retreated, the Soviet Union reoccupied Lithuania. On 11 March 1990, the year before the break-up of the Soviet Union, Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence. Prior to the global financial crisis of 2007–2010 and now in its aftermath, Lithuania has one of the fastest growing economies in the European Union. Lithuania is a member of NATO, the Council of Europe, and the European Union. Lithuania is also a full member of the Schengen Agreement. The United Nations Human Development Index lists Lithuania as a "Very High Human Development" country.
PESTLE Analysis of Lithuania
Political Factor Analysis
•Since its independence on 11th March 1940, it has maintained a strong democratic tradition •According to the explanation of Constitutional Court of Lithuania on 10 January 1998, the Republic of Lithuania is a parliamentary republic with some attributes of a semi-presidential system •The Lithuanian head of state is the President, elected directly for a five-year term and serving a maximum of two consecutive terms. •The post of president is largely ceremonial. Main policy functions, however, include foreign affairs and national security. •The president is also the commander-in-chief of the military. •The President, with the approval of the parliamentary body, the Seimas, also appoints the Prime Minister and, on the latter's nomination, the rest of the cabinet, as well as a number of other top civil servants and the judges for all courts. •The current Lithuanian head of state, Dalia Grybauskaitė was elected on 17 May 2009, becoming the first female President in the country's history. •The unicameral Lithuanian parliament, the Seimas, has 141 members who are elected to four-year terms. •71 of the members of this legislative body are elected in single member constituencies, and the other 70 are elected in a nationwide vote by proportional representation. •A party must receive at least 5% of the national vote to be eligible for any of the 70 national seats in the Seimas •Soon after independence Lithuania began the privatization process •After joining the EU it began to promote competition, support for small and medium-sized businesses to reduce the influence of monopolies and markets (in accordance with the laws of the Republic of Lithuania, the entity is considered dominant if its market share is not less than 40 percent. •Lithuania is trying to reduce the number of state-owned enterprises and monopolies •Lithuanian laws enforced racial, cultural and religious equality. •Member of the EU, the...