* Changes to map of Europe after WWI/WWII- new countries formed After WWI
Only two completely new countries in Europe were formed after WW1 - Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. Poland, which had been wiped off the map in 1795, was revived. The Baltic republics - Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania asserted their independence. Romania doubled in size.
To a great extent, no new countries were formed after World War II. Most of these changes occurred in the East. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia, only just winning independence after WWI were erased as independent states and became part of the Soviet Union. Poland's borders were moved eastward to include only the "corridor" from before the war but also parts of East Prussia, Pomerania, and Silesia, though they also lost the eastern parts of their country to the Soviet Union. Austria and Czechoslovakia, states created by the end of WWI but annexed to Nazi Germany in the 1930s reappeared, though Czechoslovakia was firmly under Soviet domination and the Austrians were forced to remain neutral during the growing Cold War. In Europe the only country divided was Germany.
* Conservatism in western politics
Conservatives, such as Austria’s Prince Klemens von Metternich, were bent on maintaining the sanctity of traditional political institutions, particularly the monarchy. It was also their goal to maintain a balance of power in Europe in order to ensure a permanent peace.
* Welfare state
Welfare State and Consumer Society
A. The motives for the welfare state
1. protection against depression and political extremism 2. the argument for social justice
B. Features of the welfare state
1. support ‘from cradle to grave’
2. educational and cultural opportunities
C. The growth of consumer society
1. a new standard of living
2. materialism and hedonism
3. the end of public life?
* Nuclear umbrella
Nuclear umbrella refers to a guarantee by a nuclear weapons state to defend a non-nuclear allied state.
* Germany after World War II
At the end of the war, Germany was basically divided into 4 sections, each one under the control of one of the Allied powers; The United States, England, France, and Russia. Berlin was divided as well. After a period of rebuilding and reorganization, the sections under the control of the United States, England, and France were returned to the control of the German government. Russia retained control over its section and brought it under the fold of the newly formed USSR. This resulted in the Berlin Wall, and the separate countries of East Germany and West Germany. Following the fall of communism and the breakup of the USSR in the 1980's, Germany reunified.
* Marshall plan
* Proposed to rebuild the continent in the interest of political stability and a healthy world economy * viewed as a vehicle for American economic dominance
* Iron Curtain
* a term coined by Winston Churchill to describe the boundary that separated the Warsaw Pact countries from the NATO countries from about 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991 * was both a physical and an ideological division that represented the way Europe was viewed after World War II
* Soviet control over Eastern Europe
Between 1945 and 1949 Stalin created a Russian empire in Eastern Europe. This empire included Poland, Hungary, Rumania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. Each had a Communist government. In the West they were called satellites because they clung closely to the Soviet Union like satellites round a planet. Stalin was able to create this empire for a number of reasons. The first was the military might of the Soviet Union in Europe after 1945. Another reason for the spread of Communism after the war was the gratitude of many Eastern Europeans for their liberation from Nazism. This, and the often-appalling conditions at the end...