CHAPTER 5 PERCEPTION AND INDIVIDUAL DECISION MAKING
"Making decisions is a critical element of organizational life. In this chapter, we'll describe how decisions in organizations are made. But first, we discuss perceptual processes and show how they are linked to individual decision making" (p. 121).
Perception: A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
"Why is perception important in the study of OB? Simply because people's behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important" (p. 122).
FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
a) THE PERCEIVER "Among the more relevant personal characteristics affecting perception are attitudes, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations" (p. 122). "… expectations can distort your perceptions in that you will see what you expect to see" (p. 123). distort = verzerren
b) THE TARGET "Characteristics of the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Loud people are more likely to be noticed in a group than are quiet ones. So, too, are extremely attractive or unattractive individuals. Motion, sounds, size, and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it" (p. 123).
THE SITUATION "The context in which we see objects or events is important. Elements in the surrounding environment influence our perceptions" (p. 124). 4
Factors That Influence Perception
Factors in the perceiver Factors in the perceiver -- Attitudes Attitudes -- Motives Motives -- Interests Interests -- Experience Experience -- Expectations Expectations Factors in the situation Factors in the situation -- Time Time -- Work setting Work setting -- Social setting Social setting
Factors in the target Factors in the target -- Novelty Novelty -- Motion Motion -- Sounds Sounds -- Size Size --...
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