This chapter begins a two-chapter segment examining individual differences. Much of this chapter is related to interactional psychology and the advances made regarding personality and behavior in specific situations. Personality characteristics discussed include locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, self-monitoring, and positive/negative affect. Personality theories explained include trait theory and the integrative approach. The chapter also examines how social perceptions influence the way we view the world and how attributions influence how we assign causality for behaviors.
LEARNING OBJECTIVESPPT Slides 2, 3
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1.Describe individual differences and their importance in understanding behavior.
3.Identify several personality characteristics and their influences on behavior in organizations.
4.Give examples of each personality characteristic from your own work experience and how
you would apply your knowledge in managing personality differences.
5.Discuss Carl Jung’s contribution to our understanding of individual differences, and explain how his theory is used in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®) instrument.
6.Evaluate the importance of the MBTI® to managers.
7.Define social perception and explain how characteristics of the perceiver, the target, and the situation affect it.
8.Identify five common barriers to social perception.
9.Explain the attribution process and how attributions affect managerial behavior.
10.Evaluate the accuracy of managerial attributions from the standpoint of attribution biases and
Chapter 3 introduces the following key terms:
attribution theory Perceiving Preference
behavioral measures personality
discounting principle positive affect
Feeling Preferenceprojective test
first-impression error selective perception
fundamental attribution error self-esteem
general self-efficacy self-fulfilling prophecy
individual differencesself-report questionnaire
integrative approachself-serving bias
Judging Preferencestrong situation
locus of controlThinking Preference
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)trait theory
the CHAPTER SUMMArized
I.THINKING AHEAD: Oracle–Larry Ellison: The Formative Years
II.INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORFigure 3.1
PPT Slides 4-7
This chapter explores individual differences in skills, abilities, personalities, perceptions, attitudes, values, and ethics.
Interactional psychology offers a useful approach to understanding individuals in organizations. This approach emphasizes understanding the person and the situations in order to understand human behavior. There are four basic propositions of interactional psychology.
* Behavior is a function of a continuous, multidirectional interaction between the person and the situation. * The person is active in this process and both changes, and is changed by, situations. * People vary in many characteristics, including cognitive, affective, motivational, and ability factors. * Two interpretations of situations are important: the objective situation and the person’s subjective view of the situation.
III.SKILLS AND ABILITIES PPT Slide 8
The concept of general mental ability (GMA) was introduced nearly 100 years ago, and refers to an individual’s innate cognitive intelligence....