UNIVERSITY OF TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva, Trinidad, W.I.

Program: National Engineering Technician Diploma Course code: ENSC 110D
Class: Petroleum
Lab Title: Pendulum with a yielding support Instructor: Mrs. Sharon Mohammed
Full time
Name: Kirn Johnson
Student ID: 58605
Date: 28/10/2012

Title

A Pendulum with a yielding support

Table of Contents
1. Abstract
2.Objectives
3.Theory
4.Apparatus / Materials
5.Procedure / Method
6.Results / data
7.Analysis / Data
8.Conclusion
9.Reference

Abstract
Intent: To conduct an experiment to prove the yielding support distance is directly proportional to the period.

Interpretation: The lab was a success because it was proven that as length was of the length of the yielding support decreased, the period also decreased. A cause of error was due to human reaction time. Although 20 oscillations were counted, the person holding the stopwatch might have stopped milliseconds before or...

...EXPERIMENT 2 Measurement of g: Use of a simple pendulum
OBJECTIVE: To measure the acceleration due to gravity using a simple pendulum.
Textbook reference: pp10-15
INTRODUCTION:
Many things in nature wiggle in a periodic fashion. That is, they vibrate. One such example is a simple pendulum. If we suspend a mass at the end of a piece of string, we have a simple pendulum. Here, the to and fro motion represents a periodic motion used in times past to control the motion of grandfather and cuckoo clocks. Such oscillatory motion is called simple harmonic motion. It was Galileo who first observed that the time a pendulum takes to swing back and forth through small distances depends only on the length of the pendulum The time of this to and fro motion, called the period, does not depend on the mass of the pendulum or on the size of the arc through which it swings. Another factor involved in the period of motion is, the acceleration due to gravity (g), which on the earth is 9.8 m/s2. It follows then that a long pendulum has a greater period than a shorter pendulum.
Before coming to lab, you should visit the following web site: http://www.myphysicslab.com/pendulum1.html This simulation shows a simple pendulum operating under gravity. For small oscillations the pendulum is linear, but it is non-linear for...

...Report : Experiment One
Title: Determination of the acceleration due to gravity with a simple pendulum
Introduction and Theory: A simple pendulum performs simple harmonic motion, i.e. its periodic motion is defined by an acceleration that is proportional to its displacement and directed towards the centre of motion. It can be shown that the period T of the swinging pendulum is proportional to the square root of the length l of thependulum: T2= (4π2l)/g
with T the period in seconds, l the length in meters and g the gravitational acceleration in m/s2. Our raw
data should give us a square-root relationship between the period and the length. Furthermore, to find an accurate value for ‘g’, we will also graph T2 versus the length of the pendulum. This way, we will be
able to obtain a straight-line graph, with a gradient equal to 4π2g–1.
Procedure: Refer to lab manual.
Measurement / Data:
Length of Pendulum ( l +/- 0.1 cm) | Time for 20 Oscillations (s) | Time for 1 Oscillation (Periodic Time) T (s) | T^2 ( s^2) |
| 1 | 2 | Mean | | |
35 | 24.00 | 23.87 | 23.94 | 1.20 | 1.43 |
45 | 26.50 | 26.75 | 26.63 | 1.33 | 1.77 |
55 | 29.94 | 29.81 | 29.88 | 1.49 | 2.23 |
65 | 32.44 | 32.31 | 32.38 | 1.62 | 2.62 |
75 | 35.06 | 35.00 | 35.03 | 1.75 | 3.07 |
85 | 37.06 | 36.87 | 36.97 | 1.85 | 3.42 |
95 | 39.25 | 39.19 | 39.22 | 1.96 | 3.85 |...

...CENTRIPETAL FORCE ON A PENDULUM
OBJECTIVE
To measure centripetal force exerted on a pendulum using the force sensor bob and in so doing compare this value determined by force calculations based on the height of the pendulum.
THEORY
Newton’s laws of motion are the basis for this experiment. Newton’s first law of motion states that a body in motion will remain in motion unless acted upon by an external force. Newton’s second law of motion states that the rate of momentum of a body is dependent on the product of its mass and acceleration. Where rate of change of momentum is given by
=
A pendulum bob follows a circular path and is therefore acted upon by centripetal force. In this experiment the tension in the string causes the bob to follow a circular path. From Newton’s second law of motion above it is related to the experiment as shown
= T- mg =ma =
Where T is the tension in the string
m is the mass of the pendulum
g is acceleration due to gravity
is the centripetal force
The force measured by the force sensor when the pendulum passes through the lowest point of the swing is equal to centripetal force. This is because the force sensor is zeroed when the pendulum is at rest in its equilibrium position, where T= mg.
Centripetal force can also be found from the relationship below using the speed, v, when the bob passes through the lowest point
=...

...Course: Pendulum Measurements
Unit # 1 Lesson # 1
Does the Length of the Pendulum affect the number of swings ?
Materials:
• string ,tape ,washer
• Stop watch
• Meter stick, paper ,pencil
Introduction :
I am doing a study to find out if the length of a Pendulum will affect the number of swings. We usually see pendulums in Grandfather clocks. It is the weight that swings back and forth. I will be changing the length of the string ,but never the weight .
Hypothesis:
I am going to say, that while doing this experiment that as the length of the string decreases , the speed of the pendulum will increase.
Procedure:
1. Got my string and measured the lengths . I marked the string at 80c ,70cm, 60cm all the way to 30 cm. This makes it easier to keep working .
2. Find a table that has a hang over on the side. This way the pendulum can swing freely.
3. Tape the string to the top of the table. Tie a knot at the end of the string and place the washer in the knot.
4. Get someone to help you with the stop watch. Set it for one minute. Now, pull the string back at 10 cm and let go. Do not push the pendulum just let it go freely. Count the complete swings out and back makes one complete swing.
5. Write down the number of swings per minute.
6. Contiunue until you have reached the 30 cm mark .
Data:
The...

...Performing the real lab:
* The compound bar pendulum AB is suspended by passing a knife edge through the first hole at the end A. The pendulum is pulled aside through a small angle and released, whereupon it oscillates in a vertical plane with a small amplitude. The time for 10 oscillations is measured. From this the period T of oscillation of the pendulum is determined.
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* In a similar manner, periods of oscillation are determined by suspending the pendulum through the remaining holes on the same side of the centre of mass G of the bar. The bar is then inverted and periods of oscillation are determined by suspending the pendulum through all the holes on the opposite side of G. The distances d of the top edges of different holes from the end A of the bar are measured for each hole.The position of the centre of mass of the bar is found by balancing the bar horizontally on a knife edge. The mass M of the pendulum is determined by weighing the bar with an accurate scale or balance.
* A graph is drawn with the distance d of the various holes from the end A along the X-axis and the period T of the pendulum at these holes along the Y-axis. The graph has two...

...Is gravity always 9.8m/s2??
INTRODUCTION: A simple pendulum consists of a mass m swinging back and forth along a circular arc at the end of a string of negligible mass. A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. Gravity is the pull that two bodies of mass exert on one another. There are several simple experiments that will allow you to calculate the acceleration due to gravity of a falling object. A simple pendulum can determine this acceleration. The only variables in this experiment are the length of the pendulum (L) and the period of one full swing of the pendulum (T). In this case the independent variable represents the length of the string and the dependent variable represents the period of one oscillation. The control variable is the mass of the pendulum. In this lab our goal was to see if we can prove if the acceleration due to gravity is 9.8m/s2. The R2 in this lab is closed to 9.8 m/s2 . The formula that we used in this lab is T=2πLg and then we solved for g=L(T2π)2.
HYPOTHESIS: The gravity will be 9.81 m/s2 at sea level due to the acceleration.
PROCEDURE:
Materials: stopwatch, meter stick, support stand, string, mass (200g), rod clamp, protractor.
Safety: Be careful not to drop any of the heavy materials or to hit somebody near you by using them.
1. Set up the support stand on a flat surface....

...Lab Report - The Simple Pendulum
Name: XXXXXXX XXXXX XXXXXXX
Date: January 18, 2013
Objective:
Gain insight on how scientists come to understand natural phenomena through theoretical and experimental data by determining the Period of a Simple Pendulum. This experiment will introduce us to the processes of data collection and the procedures used for data /error analysis.
Theory:
A Period of motion is a physical quantity associated with any cyclical natural phenomenon and is defined as one complete cycle of motion. There are many examples of this in nature, such as the earth’s period of rotation around the sun takes approximately 365 days.
The Simple Pendulum is a basic time-keeping apparatus. A weight is suspended on a length of string which in turn is attached to a frictionless pivot so it can swing freely. The time period it takes to complete one swing is determined by the theoretical equation derived from the Physical Theory of Repeating Motions, aka Simple Harmonic Motion.
T=2π〖[L⁄g]〗^(1/2)
Where T is the period, L is the length of the pendulum and g is the acceleration due to gravity,
g=9.81 m/s^2.
Once finding the theoretical period we when can compare it to experimental measured value we found of the period. In gathering the experimental data there will be a degree of uncertainty associated with the gathered values. Because of the uncertainty in gathering data this...

...length of the string affect
the period of a simple pendulum?”
IBDP PHYSICS Internal Assessment – The Simple Pendulum
9
INTRODUCTION
The original aim for this invesigation was to “investigate the simple pendulum”. There are many variables
one could look into, such as displacement, angle, damping, mass of the bob etc. The most interesting
variable, however, is the length of the swinging pendulum. The relationship between the length and the
time for one swing (the period) has been researched for many centuries, and has allowed famous
physicists like Isaac Newton and Galileo Galilei to obtain an accurate value for the gravitational
acceleration ‘g’. In this report, we will replicate their experiment, and we will try to find an accurate value
for ‘g’ here in Pisa. We will then compare this value with the commonly accepted value of 9.806 m/s2
[NIST, 2009]
A CLOSER LOOK AT OUR VARIABLES
In this investigation, we varied the length of the pendulum (our independent variable) to observe a
change in the period (our dependent variable). In order to reduce possible random errors in the time
measurements, we repeated the measurement of the period three times for each of the ten lengths. We
also measured the time for ten successive swings to further reduce the errors. The length of our original
pendulum was set at 100 cm and for each of the following measurements, we reduced the...