V. Analysis
A.Vertical displacemen t= (1/2) x (Vertical Acceleration) x (Time)2
0.92m = (1/2) x (9.8m/s2) x (Time)2
Time = ((2 x 0.92m)/(9.8m/s2))1/2 = 0.43s
Horizontal displacement = (Initial horizontal velocity) x (Time)
0.43m = (Initial horizontal velocity) x (0.43s)
Initial horizontal velocity = Initial velocity = (0.43m/0.43s) = 1.0m/s
Initial Momentum = (Mass) x (Initial Velocity)
P0 = (0.008kg) x (1.0m/s) = 0.008kgm/s
Time =((2 x Displacement)/(Acceleration))1/2
Using vertical displacement and acceleration:
Time = ((2 x 0.92m)/(9.8m/s2))1/2 = 0.43s
Final velocities
Stationary Ball (Ball 1): (0.32m/0.43s) = 0.73m/s = Final Velocity1
Rolling Ball (Ball 2): (0.072m/0.43s) = 0.17m/s = Final Velocity2
Final momentum = ((Mass1) x (VF1)) + ((Mass2) x (VF2))
Mass1=Mass2
PF = (Mass) x (VF1 + VF2)
Vector Addition of Velocities
0.73sin(13.1)= 0.17m/s0.73cos(13.1)= 0.71m/s
0.17sin(48.7)= -0.13m/s0.17cos(48.7)= 0.11m/s
Resultant xcomp = (0.17m/s + (-0.13m/s)) = 0.04m/s
Resultant ycomp = (0.71 m/s + 0.11 m/s) = 0.82m/s
Resultant Final Velocity = ((0.04m/s)2 + (0.82m/s)2)1/2 = 0.68m/s
PF = (0.008kg) x (0.68m/s) = 0.0054kgm/s
B.To calculate the initial momentum, the mass of the object and the velocity of the object must be calculated. To find the velocity, kinematics was used. Because the object has no initial vertical velocity and only horizontal velocity, the initial velocity can be found by dividing the horizontal displacement by the amount of time the object was in the air. However, there are two unknown variables in that equation, so time must be calculated using vertical kinematics. Time can be isolated and solved for by taking the square root of two times the vertical displacement divided by the vertical acceleration. Then, by plugging this value into the original horizontal kinematic equation, the initial velocity can be calculated. The initial momentum is the product of the initial...

...What is momentum?
Momentum of a body is defined as the mass multiplied by the velocity of this object.
Momentum= m x v
Momentum and Newton’s second law of motion:
The resultant force is proportional to the change in momentum per a second.
We know that force = mass x acceleration. So F (mv-mu)/t
F m (v-u)/t = ma so F=kma
Momentum is a vector quantity:
Momentum has a direction as well as a magnitude
Momentum and Newton’s first law of motion:
An object remains at rest or in uniform motion unless acted upon by a force.
If an object had a constant momentum, it will have a constant amount of force needed to that will mean that no resultant force acting on it. So it will have a constant velocity unless the mass changes.
Momentum key points
Unit of momentum:
Kgms-1
Symbol of momentum:
P
But what is momentum as a physical quantity?
Momentum is the measure of how much force is needed to stop the moving object or change its velocity (speed or direction)
Momentum is found in lots of examples from our everyday lives. To understand what momentum is we look at two colliding objects. Each object is moving with a certain velocity and has a certain mass. To stop this object a certain force must be applied to counter the...

...Alex
Lab M7
Conservation of Momentum
Abstract: This experiment involved the use of gliders on an air track which nearly isolates the colliding system from external forces to create low friction totally elastic and inelastic collisions. Seven different collisions were made, four elastic and three inelastic. The collisions consisted of only two gliders with varying masses and speeds. Each glider cart was equipped with a flag, and its passage through a photogate timer was timed. These measurements will allowed the velocities of the collision partners to be measured before and after they collided with each other. The obtained values do show that initial momentum and final momentum are equal irrespective of their masses and initial velocities. The results show that momentum and kinetic energy of the system is conserved during an elastic collision while only momentum is conserved during inelastic collision. Kinetic energy is not conserved during an inelastic collision. This was found by dividing the final kinetic energy by the initial kinetic and getting a number that was close to one. Which is was fairly close in most cases.
Introduction: The purpose of this experiment is to study the principle of conservation of momentum in collisions using two bodies. The amount of kinetic energy lost in elastic and inelastic collisions is also calculated.
The theory of...

...Laboratory V: Conservation of Momentum
Problem #1: Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
John Greavu
April 17, 2013
Physics 1301W, Professor: Evan Frodermann, TA: Mark Pepin
Abstract
A cart was given an initial velocity toward another stationary cart down a track. The initial velocity of the first cart as well as the masses of both carts was varied throughout multiple trials. Velcro placed on the ends of the carts caused the cars to stick together after colliding. Videos of the collision and the seconds just before and after were taken. Data was then uploaded and plotted in MotionLab were it was used to create construct velocity vs. time graphs for each trial. After analyzing the data and the subsequent graphs the final velocity equation for two objects (each of known mass) that have collided directly head-on in a perfectly inelastic collision was determined as a function of the initial velocities and masses of the two objects.
Introduction
“You work for NASA with a group designing a docking mechanism that would allow two space shuttles to connect with each other. The mechanism is designed for one shuttle to move carefully into position and dock with a stationary shuttle. Since the shuttles may be carrying different payloads and different amounts of fuel, their masses may not be identical: the shuttles could be equally massive, the moving shuttle could be more massive, or the stationary shuttle could have a larger mass. Your supervisor wants you to calculate the...

...Collisions in Two Dimensions
Abstract: This lab was conducted to investigate the theories of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in different types of 2D collisions. In order to do this, both an elastic and inelastic collision was conducted on an air table with pucks. A video was taken and analyzed to determine velocity, allowing for future finding of momentum and kinetic energy values. By finding these, it was possible to determine which kind of collision took place. With low values of change in momentum and kinetic energy that occurred in elastic collisions, it is understood that both are conserved in this type of collision. However, in the inelastic collision, momentum is conserved while kinetic energy is not. Possible error in this lab may have resulted from the neglect of friction and rotational kinetic energy. Overall, however, the results matched up well with the expected values. The objective of the lab was therefore met.
Objective:
The objective of this lab is to support that momentum will be conserved in all forms of collisions, and that kinetic energy will be conserved only in elastic collisions.
Materials:
Materials used in this lab were a video camera, an air table with pucks and Velcro bands, and Logger Pro software.
Procedure:
Videos of collisions of air hockey pucks will be recorded onto the...

...Aim:
To find out whether momentum and kinetic energy are conserved.
Hypothesis:
Theoretically momentum should be conserved at all times whereas energy is lost if the collision is not a fully elastic one through heat and sound.
Variables:
The Independent variable is the initial and final mass of the trolley. The Dependent variable is the velocity of the trolley.
Procedure:
i) Set up apparatus as shown in the diagram.
ii) Start ticker timer and give the trolley a brisk push.
iii) Drop a book from your hands onto the trolley as it runs beneath.
iv) Run off enough tapes for each member of your group.
v) Measure the mass of your book and the trolley.
Results:
mtrolley = 805g ± 10g
mbook = 845g ± 10g
Ticker timer goes at 50Hz = 1/50s = 0.02s
vi = di / Δt vf = d2 / Δt
di = 5.4cm ± 0.1cm vi = 0.54ms-1
d2 = 1.8cm ± 0.1cm vf = 0.18ms-1
Ek = mv2 / 2
Ek before = 0.117369 J
Ek after = 0.02673 J
Pbefore = Pafter
Pbefore = mv Pbefore = 0.4347 kgms-1
Pafter = (m + m)v Pafter = 0.297 kgms-1
Evaluation and Analysis:
The obtained results don't support my hypothesis since they show that neither energy nor momentum is conserved in this situation. The momentum after the collision decreased by a factor of approx. 1.5 whereas kinetic energy has decreased by almost a factor of 4.5. Due to friction from the table and the ticker timer the measurements taken were not 100% accurate. Friction was the main cause of...

...up between them. These impact forces influence the subsequent motion of the bodies. Momentum of the system (consisting of both bodies) is preserved if both bodies are free to move in space. This is because there is no external forces act on the system.
The forces acting between the bodies during the small interval of time when they are in contact cause changes in the velocities of each separate body. An exact determination of these forces is not practical but the presence of the forces can be allowed for by using a property known as the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution is the ratio of speeds of a falling object, from when it hits a given surface to when it leaves the surface. In laymen's terms, the coefficient of restitution is a measure of bounciness. It basically is a property of collisions and depends upon the materials that are colliding.
In this experiment, the coefficient of restitution between two balls, (a glass marble and a steel ball bearing) and the apparatus it is colliding with will be determined.
AIMS
To determine the coefficient of restitution between two balls, (a glass marble and a steel ball bearing) and the apparatus it is colliding with.
THEORY
When two bodies collide, equal and opposite forces act on each body and will cause a motion. If there is no external force exerted to the system, then momentum will be conserved. Momentum is defined as (kg.m/s) and is a...

...Solving Momentum Problems
Momentum:
For lack of a better definition, momentum is a measure of the “oomph” that an object has due to its
motion. The more mass an object has and the more speed it has the more momentum it has. The
formula for momentum is simply:
p=mv
Where p is momentum, m is mass, and v is velocity
Note that momentum is a vector quantity, so it is possible to have negative momentum. Any object that
is moving in the direction opposite that defined as positive will have a negative momentum. You can
also break a momentum vector into components or resolve momentum vectors into a single resultant.
Momentum is a conserved quantity. The momentum of a system will not change unless an outside
impulse is applied to it. If the system remains isolated, its total momentum will not change. That does
not mean that individual parts of a system cannot interact with each other and exchange momentums.
Conservation of Momentum is a basic physics principle that allows us to solve many interesting
problems.
The unit of momentum is a kg•m/s
Impulse:
The only way to change momentum is through impulse. Impulse is an outside force applied for a
specific time. Obviously the harder you push and the longer you push the...

...Collision and Conservation of Momentum
Collision, a normal phenomenon in our daily life, also is familiar by people in physics field. As we can imagine, there are many interesting among collision cause our attention to think about what is this exactly about and how does is work or maybe why is that such as there maybe some neutron stars intensely hurtling in outer space or two small eggs hitting each other. Outer space is filled with infinite particles that maybe as small as things people cant find out or measure so far and collisions are mostly about those small particles moving and hitting. For example, light wouldn’t be so bright according to its mass and the reason that it delivers light is because collision -- namely fraction – to produce photon and then integrate light. A collision is an isolated event in which two o more moving bodies exert forces on each other for a relatively short time. Even though, many people would refer collision to accidents where there are object badly crashed, what my topic will be focused on are those phenomenon among physics world. Moreover, when scientists use the word of “collision”, they try to imply nothing about the magnitude of the forces. Collision was ever a hot topic drawing many physicists’ attention. After plenty of delving, physicists establish the momentum conservation law. Collision is a typical characteristic in microcosm in physics. Fortunately, collision can be simply solved from difficultly...