Pathophysiology

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HPRS 2301 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
CHAPTER 4 – Diseases and Conditions of the Endocrine System

Orderly Function of the Endocrine System
Two Systems Interaction-as one system starts, ends, or extends the activity of the other.
Nervous System-creates an immediate but short lived response,operating on the priciples of electricity through impulse conduction.
Endocrine System- has a slightly slower onset and a longer duration of action, and uses highly specific and powerful hormones to control its response.
Glands of the Endocrine System- these glands secrete unique and potent chemicals called hormones directly into the bloodstream.

ENDOCRINE DISEASES Results of dysfunction of or increase/decrease of secretion of hormone
Symptoms and signs- growth abnormalities, emotional disturbances or psychiatric problems; skin, hair, and nail changes; edema;hypertention or hypotention;arrhythmia;changes in urine ourput; muscle weakness and atrophy, menstrual irregularity or amenorrhea,impotence or changes in libido;sterility, sharp changes in energy changes. Master gland-pituitary gland regulates most of the other endocrine glands.(HYPOTHSALAMUS) Hypo (define) under

Hyper (define) over
Pituitary Gland Diseases
Hyperpituitarism
Define- a chronic and progressive disease, is caused by excessive production and secretion of pituitary hormones, for example, human growth hormone.
Gigantism
Define- describes an abnormal pattern and stature.
Symptoms and Signs- When the hypersecretion of GH occurs before puberty, the result is gigantism, a proportional overgrowth of all body tissue. A child experiences abnormal and accelerated growth, especially of the long bones, because epiphyseal closure has not begun. Typically an accelerated linear growth prompts an intial investigation in children. Sexual and mental developments are often retarded.

Acromegaly
Define-is a chronic metabolic condition of adults caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary gland.
Symptoms and Signs- When the hypersecretion of GH occurs after puberty, acromegaly occurs which is an over growth of the bones of the face, hands and feet. The patient by experience joint pain resulting from osteoarthritis and a host of other clinical features in the body stystems.

Hypopituitarism
Define-a condition caused by a deficiency or absence of any of the pitutary hormones, especially those produced by the anterior pituitary lobe.
Dwarfism
Define-is the abnormal underdevelopment of the body, or hypopitarism, occuring in the children.
Diabetes Insipidus
Define- is a disturbance of water metabolism resulting in extreme thirst and excessive secretion of dilute urine.
Symptoms and Signs-a deficiency in the release of vasopressin by the posterior pituitary glandm resulting in the excretion of copious amounts of colorless and dilute urine polyuria.

Thyroid Gland Diseases
Simple Goiter
Define- an enlargement of the thyroid gland usually evidenced by a swelling in the neck.
Symptoms and Signs-a hyperplasia of the thyroid gland, may be asymptomic in the early stages. The patient, usually female, maybe unaware of the condition until the anterior aspect of the neck enlarges with a conspicious swollen mass.

Etiology- simple or nontoxic goiter results from a shortage of iodine
Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis
Define- is a chronic disease of the immune system that attacks the thyroid gland.
Symptoms and Signs-the condition occurs in women eight times as often as men, is most common between 45 and 65 years of age, and is the leading cause of goiter and hypothyroidism. The clinical feature is the gradual and painless lumpy enlargement of the thyroid gland, which causes a feeling of pressure in the neck and difficulty swallowing. Pain can also include, sesitivity to cold, weight gain, fatigue and depression as well as mental apathy appear as the disease progresses. Hyperthyroidism

Graves’ Disease
Define- a...
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