For Some Endurance Athletes, the Pressure to Perform at the Highest Level Means That the Temptation to Gain Unfair Aerobic Training from Ergogenic Aids, Despite the Dangers, Becomes Too Great. Identify 2 Physiological

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Blood doping is the first type of ergogenic aid that an endurance athlete such as a marathon runner may use. Blood doping is re-injecting red blood cells into the bloodstream that have previously been removed from the athlete. Whilst the blood was removed the body created more blood in order to compensate for the loss. This means that when the blood is returned there are a lot more red blood cells in the circulatory system. The effect of blood doping is that due to the increased number of red blood cells, more oxygen can be carried by haemoglobin to the working muscles. The benefits of bloody doping are that aerobic capacity is increased and fatigue is delayed making the endurance athlete able to sustain a high level of performance throughout their event/race. The risks of blood doping are that: blood viscosity is increased leading to a lower heart rate and clotting causing heart failures and strokes; due to transfusion practises, HIV and other diseases could also be a risk; also, dehydration causes a decrease in plasma volume which consequently increases blood viscosity leading to the previously mentioned problems. The final risk/drawback is that blood doping is banned. This means that if an athlete were to be found using the process they would loose their title and right to compete facing disqualification. Human growth hormone, HGH, is produced in the anterior pituitary gland and promotes growth in humans. When taken to improve performance, it is thought that fat free mass is increase; as are: blood glucose levels; bone growth; capability to heal soft tissues and the lipolysis breakdown of FFA’s. The effect on the performer is therefore thought to be an increase in muscle mass and strength. This is positive for an endurance athlete because if their muscles are bigger and stronger they should be able to work for longer and not fatigue as easily. The risks of HGH are that hypertrophy of internal organs could also take place as the growth is not limited to a...
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