Parent to Child, Child to Parent Relationships

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The University of Queensland

28/03/2013
EDUC 3701: Assessment Task 1
Essay: Parent to child, child to parent influences
Author: Nicole Castledine (s42590480) Tutor: Gregory Vass

Introduction
Students who are gifted and talented are recognized as those with an innate ability in any domain that places them within the top 10% of their age peers (Collins, 2011; Gifted and Talented Children, 2013). What constitutes giftedness varies in cultures and society, however gifts are generally classified as natural abilities, whereas talents are skills that are scaffolded and developed over time (Gifted and Talented Children, 2013, Women's and Children's Health Network, 2011). This essay will address the parent to child and child to parent influences that occur from a child being labelled gifted or talented, during two specific periods of time. The age brackets which will be discussed include five to eight years and nine to eleven years. Comparison and contrast will occur of two phases of this age group to determine the dynamic nature of parent/child relationship in these two periods, including how they develop and change. This essay will address the two main influences research has found to occur for parents and children; IQ testing to determine giftedness with links to underachievement, and expectations/pressure from parents and teachers linking to social development. These influences may not occur in all situations as every parent and child is different, however research has found IQ testing and expectations/pressure to be the most common influences generally resulting in specific outcomes.

Parent to child, and child to parent influences (5-8 years)
Parents often recognize their child's gifts/talents during the early developmental years through social, emotional and cognitive domains before formal assessment (Collins, 2011; Page, 2010). Research highlights most states still heavily rely on intelligence quotient testing (IQ testing), to determine giftedness (Perrone, Perrone, Ksiazak, Wright & Z Vance, 2007; Pfeiffer, 201; Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius & Worrell, 2011). Using IQ testing alone to determine a child's giftedness/talents can result in negative influences on both children and parents (Brown, Renzulli, Gubbins, Siegle, Zhang & Chen, 2005; Page, 2010). Children can become depressed, self conscious and insecure through not meeting the required target to be classified as gifted (Alberta Education, n.d; Bross, 2012; Gates, 2010; Greene, 2006). Through this outcome it has been discovered that most gifted children who are unrecognised question who they are and generally develop a relaxed approach to learning, resulting in underachievement (Bhatt, 2012). Primarily this is a result of boredom in the classroom, the child's needs not being met by teachers and parents, and the manifestation of social-psychological tensions (Bross, 2012). Research also suggests parents experienced most of these effects along with frustration, social isolation and psychological stress (Collins, 2011). Identification of gifts/talents can also lead to some negative influences. Although initially negative consequences may occur from the label of gifted or talented, more positive outcomes have been acknowledged (Gifted and Talented Children, 2013). Parents are an enormous influence to the degree in which ones’ abilities are accepted and translated into high achievement. Expectations and pressure from parents and teachers can determine the way in which a child responds to their abilities (McFarland, 2013).

Parent to child, and child to parent influences (9-11 years) Environmental and social variables affect giftedness and talent development (Gifted and Talented Children, 2013). Page (2012) states that unachievable expectations and pressure from parents and teachers may result in children feeling less valued as an individual, and only acknowledged for their gifts/talents. To uphold parent and teacher...
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