Parental involvement is key to motivation and academic achievement of all academic levels including secondary. It is widely recognized that if pupils are to maximize their potential from schooling they will need the full support of their parents. Attempts to enhance parental involvement in education occupy, administrators, educators and parents organizations globally. It is anticipated that parents should play a role not only in the promotion of their own children’s achievements but more broadly in school improvement. Effects on Parental Involvement
Research has shown that student and family characteristics affect levels of parental involvement. Working-class families, foster parents, single mothers and fathers, and families in which mothers work full-time tend to be less involved in their children's education. Also, parents of elementary school students tend to be more involved in their children's education than parents of older students. Other factors, however, have been shown to be more important predictors of parental involvement than family income or structure. Schools play a significant role in getting parents and family members involved in students' education. In their study published in the 1993 book Families and Schools in a Pluralistic Society, Susan L. Dauber and Joyce L. Epstein found that school and teacher practices were the strongest predictors of parental involvement. Specific practices that have been shown to predict parental involvement include: assigning homework designed to increase student-parent interactions, holding workshops for families, and communicating to parents about their children's education.
Parental beliefs and perceptions have also been shown to be a strong predictor of parental involvement. Parents' educational aspirations and level of comfort with the school and staff have been shown to predict levels of involvement. In addition, parents' beliefs about their responsibilities as a parent, their ability to affect their...
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