Overview & Comparison of Sgml, Html&Xml

Topics: HTML, XML, XHTML Pages: 5 (974 words) Published: November 15, 2011
Jason Constant


Web Page Design

Research Project

Course Information

Course Code:ITEC 240

Lecturer:Kathyann Marshall



Front Page1






Relationship between SGML XML, HTML and XML8


Java Script11


SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) is a system for organizing and tagging elements of a document. SGML was developed and standardized by the International Organization for Standards (ISO) in 1986. SGML itself does not specify any particular formatting; rather, it specifies the rules for tagging elements. SGML itself is not a markup language; rather, it is a language to create markup languages. Because of SGML's complexity, HTML and XML were developed as simplified subsets of SGML for use on the Internet. SGML does not specify any particular formatting; rather, it specifies the rules for tagging elements. These tags can then be interpreted to format elements in different ways.


XML is a lightweight version of SGML which keeps enough of its functionality to make it useful but removes all the optional features which made SGML too complex to program for in a web environment. XML is the Extensible (not a fixed format) Markup Language, instead XML is a meta-language, a language for describing other languages. It improves the functionality of the Web by letting you identify your information in a more accurate, flexible, and adaptable way.


HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a computer language devised to allow website creation. It is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. Markup is what HTML tags do to the text inside them. They mark it as a certain type of text (italicised text, for example). The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's words and images for the user, while also providing information about the structure of the document and how it should be presented. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element or a tag. These tags are not displayed but indicate how the content should be displayed. Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end.


Dynamic HTML (DHTML) is a browser technology that describes HTML pages with dynamic content. It is not a programming language, rather a set of features that is accessed through a programming language, such as JavaScript. It is any  combination of Style Sheets(CSS), JavaScript,& Html. DHTML can accomplish the following: 1) Create content that can appear and disappear AFTER the document has loaded. 2) Manipulate the style of a document (ie: font size, color etc) on demand. 3) Dynamically position elements in a document.


(XHTML) Extensible Hypertext Markup Language is a cross between between HTML and XML specifically designed for Net device displays. Xhtml is a stricter and cleaner version of HTML and is supported by all major browsers. Today's market consists of different browser technologies. Some browsers run on computers, and some browsers run on mobile phones or other small devices. Smaller devices often lack the resources or power to interpret a "bad" markup language. Therefore - by combining the strengths of HTML and XML, XHTML was developed. Because these modules conform to certain standards, XHTML's extensibility ensures that layout and presentation stay true-to-form over any platform. As a result this enables XHTML pages to be read by many different platforms.

Relationship between SGML XML, HTML and XML

In the family of markup languages, Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is the parent. SGML provides a way to define markup languages and sets the standard for their form. In other words, SGML states what some languages can or cannot do, what elements must...
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