An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (1789) (Jeremy Bentham)
Chapter I: Of the Principle of Utility
I. Nature has placed mankind under 2 sovereign masters.
a. Pain – What is needed to be given up to achieve happiness. b. Pleasure – What is recognized to make us happy.
II. The principal of utility is the foundation of present work.
III. Utility = property in any object that produces benefits: if for the community then the community: if for a particular individual then for that individual.
IV. The community is a fictitious body where everybody gives interests by contributing.
V. Promote interest to an individual when the total amount of pleasure outcomes the total amount of pains.
VI. An action is conformed when it gives greater amount of happiness than it diminish to the community.
VII. A measure of the government is conformed if it increases happiness greater than if it has to diminish it.
VIII. If measure taken by government then has to be conformed to utility principle.
IX. A man is a partisan of the utility principle if his actions augment the happiness of the community regardless of his own conformity or unconformity.
X. An action is conformable to the utility principle if taking one decision is not wrong or true.
XI. To give a proof that the principle of utility works it has to be experienced directly. Chapter II: Of the Principle Adverse to that of Utility
I. The utility principal is the ultimate tool that should be used by government to insure happiness, and any other principals different from it must be wrong.
II. A principal may be opposed to the utility principal in 2 ways: a. Always opposed to it – Asceticism.
b. By being sometimes opposed to it.
III. Asceticism in a sense where it has opposite effects of the utility principal.
IV. Sanctions must be taken for people committing crimes.