Outline and Evaluate the Psychodynamic Model of Abnormality. (12 Marks)

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Outline and evaluate the psychodynamic model of abnormality. (12 Marks) The psychodynamic model (which is based on Freud’s theories) states that abnormalities are results of a conflict which has gone wrong in the “psyche” (in the mind). Freud’s idea states that the psyche - which is made up of the (id, ego and superego), should all work in perfect harmony with each other to avoid being an abnormal person. It is the idea that conscious thoughts and feelings are determined by the unconscious mind, and essentially being mentally healthy requires a good balance between: the id (which controls the desires for which we live for in order to satisfy ourselves), the superego (which takes into consideration morals and the difference between right and wrong) and the ego (which balances the superego and id to keep our behaviour in check). From these 3 components in the psyche, you can quickly see that the id and superego are constantly in conflict. This ultimately means that for a person to not develop a psychological disorder - a strong ego is necessary as it will “get the best of both worlds” and create a balance, while allowing the superego and id to express themselves (when suitable), without dominating the personality and hence, causing a psychological disorder. An example of an abnormality which could occur from the id being too strong in kids (is developing conduct disorders). In adults (they become psychopaths), all because of the personality being taken over by the id. If the superego is too strong socially acceptable pleasures will be hard to come by as neurotic behaviours such as phobias and obsessions will be apparent, as they will be constantly fixated with things that they want to do but “cant” because their too scared. Freud thought that the childhood of an individual was essential in the development of personality and that all abnormal behaviours are linked to childhood. There are different ages associated with different stages. An example of this is the oral...
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