The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. - Gordon Allport * The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others, the measurable traits a person exhibits * Measuring Personality
* Helpful in hiring decisions
* Most common method: self-reporting surveys
* Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality – often better predictors Personality is often defined by characteristics such as outgoing or charming. However, psychologists define personality as the growth and development of a person’s whole psychological system. We study personality in Organizational Behavior because it impacts a number of important work outcomes. We can attempt to measure personality through a variety of methods. Often these methods are utilized in the hiring process to assist in hiring the right person for the job and the organization. The most common method is self-reporting surveys where individuals answer questions that determine what type of personality they have. Another, more accurate, method is when others observe the individual and provide an independent assessment of their personality. Personality Determinants
* Factors determined at conception: physical stature, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition and reflexes, energy level, and bio-rhythms * This “Heredity Approach” argues that genes are the source of personality * Twin studies: raised apart but very similar personalities * There is some personality change over long time periods There has been a long-standing debate about whether genetics or environment are more important in determining personality. They both play an important role. The heredity approach refers to factors determined at conception such as physical stature and gender. This has been reaffirmed by studies that have looked at twins who were raised apart but still had similar personalities. Personalities can, however, change over time. Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior * The more consistent the characteristic and the more frequently it occurs in diverse situations, the more important the trait. * Two dominant frameworks used to describe personality:
* Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI®)
* Big Five Model
Even though personalities do change overtime, there are enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior. If we see a trait consistently surface in different situations, this trait is important in describing the individual.
Some methods used to describe personality are the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, the MBTI. The Big Five Model is another framework used to describe personality. The MBTI is the most widely used personality instrument worldwide. Participants are classified within four scales to determine 1 of 16 possible personality types. These types are broken down into four dichotomies. The first is extroverts who tend to be sociable and assertive verses introverts who tend to be quiet and shy. The second dichotomy is sensing and intuitive. Sensors are practical and orderly where intuits utilize unconscious processes. The third dichotomy is thinking and feeling. Thinking focuses on using reason and logic where feeling utilizes values and emotions. The final dichotomy is judging and perceiving. Judgers want order and structure whereas perceivers are more flexible and spontaneous. The Types and Their Uses
* Each of the sixteen possible combinations has a name, for instance: * Visionaries (INTJ) – original, stubborn, and driven * Organizers (ESTJ) – realistic, logical, analytical, and businesslike * Conceptualizer (ENTP) – entrepreneurial, innovative, individualistic, and resourceful * Research results on validity mixed...