Thus far, we’ve been has been dealing with individual behavior. Another important component of OB, however, is group behavior.
Why care about group dynamics and teamwork?
1. Most work takes place in a group context.
2. The dynamics between people in groups is largely responsible for both the successes and failures of many work groups, as well as the satisfaction of the individuals working in them.
3. Groups and teams can be very effective if you know how to manage them properly. It is important for an effective manager to understand how people work in groups, and how to create effective teams.
4. Teams are a fact of life—the most popular way of coordinating the activity of people on the job. Knowing know they work will give you an edge.
The Nature of Groups
What is a group?
— a collection of two or more interacting and interdependent individuals who have come together to accomplish shared goals.
— A group is more than simply a collection of people.
- The most basic way of identifying types of groups is to distinguish between formal and informal groups.
Being able to accurately define and classify the groups may help explain their behavior.
2 types of groups: Formal and Informal
I. Formal Groups (are created by the organization and are intentionally designed to direct members toward some important organizational goal).
A. Command groups (a group determined by the connections between individuals who are a formal part of the organization---Those who legitimately can give orders to others).
— Typically consists of a supervisor and his/her subordinates.
Example:A vice president of marketing and her regional marketing directors.
B. Task groups (formal organizational group formed around some specific task).
— Task group boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical supervisor; it can cross command relationships.
Example:Affirmative action committee, ad hoc committee, task forces
2.Informal Groups (are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social interaction).
— Develops naturally among an organization’s personnel without any direction from management.
— A key factor in the formation is a common interest shared by its members.
A.Interest groups (band together to attain a specific, common goal).
Example:Employees who band together to seek union representation.
B.Friendship Groups (those brought together because of shared characteristics/interests).
— They provide opportunities for satisfying worker’s social needs.
Example:A departmental softball or bowling team; a poker night
• The 4 basic building blocks of group dynamics:
1. Roles (the various parts played by group members; a role is defined as the typical behaviors that characterize a person in a social context).
2. Norms (the rules and expectations that develop within groups; norms are defined as generally agreed upon informal rules that guide group members’ behavior).
3. Status (the prestige of group membership).
4. Cohesiveness 凝聚力(the members’ sense of belonging).
Roles: The hats we wear
- The behaviors expected of you are known as role expectations. - In general, 3 roles commonly emerge in groups:
i. Task-oriented role (refers to the person who, more than anyone else, helps the group reach its goal
ii. Socio-emotional role (refers to the group member who’s quite supportive and nurturing, someone on makes everyone else feel good)
iii. Self-oriented role (refers to group members who tend to do things for themselves, often at the expense of the group). –doing things for themselves, more focus on their own interest.
Norms: A Group’s unspoken rules (generally agreed-upon standards of behavior...