|ORGANIZATIONAL CONFLICTS | |Managing Organizational Conflicts | | | | | | | |Gaurav Singh | |0921000243 | |Organizational Structure & Behavior | | |
Conflict is inevitable among humans. When two or more social entities (i.e., individuals, groups, organizations, and nations) come in contact with one another in attaining their objectives, their relationships may become incompatible or inconsistent. Relationships among such entities may become inconsistent when two or more of them desire a similar resource that is in short supply; when they have partially exclusive behavioral preferences regarding their joint action; or when they have different attitudes, values, beliefs, and skills. "Conflict is the perception of differences of interests among people".
Another definition of conflict would be “a process of social interaction involving a struggle over claims to resources, power and status, beliefs, and other preferences and desires. The aims of the parties in conflict may extend from simply attempting to gain acceptance of a preference, or securing a resource advantage, to the extremes of injuring or eliminating opponents.
The theme of conflict has been with us and has influenced our thinking from time immemorial. It received different degrees of emphasis from social scientists during various periods of history. Over the years the phenomena relating to conflict have fallen within the purview of the historian, the novelist, the philosopher, and the theologian, and have been treated systematically by authors in all of the biological and social sciences. Conflicts between nations, political parties, and ideologies have been examined by the political scientist; conflicts in the market place have been examined by the economist; group conflicts of various kinds—familial, racial, religious, and social class—have been investigated by the sociologist; and the struggle for survival by species of differing genetic endowments has been studied by the biologist. Scholars in organization theory became interested in studying conflict only in recent times. In recent years, there have been renewed interest and significant changes in the study of conflict in social and organizational contexts. The formation of the International Association for Conflict Management and Conflict Management Division of the Academy of Management to encourage research, teaching, and training and development on managing social and organizational conflicts and the publication of the International Journal of Conflict Management attest to this renewed interest. In recent years, a number of universities in the United States—Harvard, Northwestern, George Mason, for example—have shown great interest in teaching and research on social and organizational conflicts.
Having recognized that conflict is an important social concept, we can then look into the special case of organizational conflict. Conflict is certainly one of the major organizational phenomena. Pondy observed that organization theories "that do not admit conflict provide poor guidance in dealing with problems of organizational efficiency, stability, governance, and change, for conflict within and between organizations is intimately related as either...