Organisational Theory

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Apple is a global giant whose success has been built on outsourcing to a range of other organisations located across the world. How can different organizational theory perspectives assist us in acquiring different understanding of Apple, its organizational network and influence? In this essay you must use at least two perspectives to analyze Apple. Introduction

In this revolutionised world, changes occur rapidly, be it in an organized or disorganized way (Henry Veltmeyer 2008). Organisations are dealing with more complex systems and concepts. The study of organisational theories gradually gains importance because it involves the study of abstract issues relating to organisations. It is essential as it benefits in analyzing and discovering new meanings to life both inside and outside the organisation (Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). Apple’s innovative story has been told and retold all around us. Its success is largely due to the late co-founder, Steven Paul Jobs. With the passing of Steve Jobs, Apple Inc is still prospering and currently the most admired company is the world (Fortune 2012). In organisational theory, the success of Apple can be analysed into two perspectives that vary extremely; Modernist and Post-Modernist. The modernist attributes Apple’s success to its unique organisation chart and ‘knowledge is power’ organisation culture. Post-modernist give credits to Apple’s acknowledgement of discourses and environment influences related to the organisation. Apple’s ability to churn out great quantities of products to meet the demand and its consistent engagement with stakeholders showed the efforts to be competitive in the industry. It is also a significant contribution to its success. However, Apple’s way of achieving success is a cause of debate due to its pathological relationship with its stakeholders.

This essay aims to provide an exploration into Apple’s Inc organisation; perspectives of its stakeholders and how the relationship towards its environment. The context of the essay will be separated into two parts. Part A and B. Part A will touch on the meta-theoretical assumptions of modernist and post-modernist and how it relates to organisation’s power, control and the environment.

Part B will apply the assumptions and definitions in part A to analyze modernism and postmodernism perspectives on Apple. The focus will be on the ways that Apple demonstrates power and how it influences its environment and network which includes stakeholders.

Part A

Ontology

Ontology is defined as the science or study of reality (McAuley, Duberley & Johnson 2007). It seeks to clarify what are the reality and the phenomena we take to constitute aspects of the reality. Modernist’s ontological assumption is described as objectivism. It claims that social world and reality is in order and that the reality is in a rational, structured manner regardless of our knowledge (Boisot & Mckelvey 2010). They view the existent of time is real regardless of the human’s awareness because of humans develop hypothesis and propositions that showed the reality of time. On the other hand, there is no clear stance on the ontological assumption of postmodernism. It is developed in reaction of modernism position (Moore 2001). Postmodernist rejects and challenge the modernist view and argue that time is ‘created’ through the discourses of human because it provides meaning and assurance to humans.

Epistemology
Epistemology is the study of the criteria we set and how it justifies the belief. It seeks to clarify how beings create knowledge to claim the world is justified.

Modernist takes a positive point of perspectives in viewing the world in search for knowledge. Modernist’s epistemological assumption is positivism, whereby rational hypotheses and practices of knowledge will define reality and understand nature(Hatch and Cunliffe 2006). They sees ‘truths’ to be the discovery of the human’s accurate hypothesis and...
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