Organelles of Prokaryote and Eukaryote Cells

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Prokaryote
Organelles:

Nucleoid Region: The region in a prokaryotic cell consisting of a concentrated mass of DNA. (The “nucleus” of a prokaryotic cell) The nucleoid instructs all the organelles on what to do.

Ribosome: A cell organelle consisting of RNA and protein organized into two subunits and functioning as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. The ribosomal subunits are constructed in the nucleolus. (Make proteins from amino acids) The nucleoid controls the ribsomes and specifies which proteins to make.

Plasma Membrane: The thin layer of lipids and proteins that sets a cell off from its surroundings and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell; consists of a phospholipid bilayer in which are embedded molecules and protein cholesterol. (“skin” of a cell) The membrane surrounds the organelles and serves as a filter, allowing certain chemicals in and out of the cell.

Prokaryotic Cell Wall: A fairly rigid, chemically complex wall that protects the prokaryotic cell and helps maintain its shape. (“armor” of a cell)

Capsule: A sticky layer that surrounds the bacterial cell wall, protects the cell surface, and sometimes helps glue the cell to surfaces. (outer “clothes” of a cell)

Pili: Short projections on the surface of the prokaryotic cells that help prokaryotes attach to other surfaces. (“feet” of a cell)

Prokaryotic Flagella: A long surface projection that propels a prokaryotic cell through its liquid environment; totally different from the flagellum of a eukaryotic cell. (“Motor” of a cell)

[pic]Eukaryot
Organelles

Nucleus: The genetic control center of a eukaryotic cell. (Brain) Controls all the cell’s action and stores the DNA information. The nucleus is where the ribosomes are made.

Endoplasmic reticulum: ER membranes partition the cell into separate parts. • Rough ER: A network is a network of interconnected flattened sacs with two main functions: To make more...
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