On the Rise and Fall of Great Britain

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On the Rise and fall of Great Britain (1)
英国,一个漂泊在大西洋上的小岛,曾经在世界历史发展的漫长时期中湮没无闻,人口不过数百万,国土资源也很有限,却率先敲开通向现代世界的大门,从地理的边缘变成了世界的中心,一跃成为西方强国的领头人,并独领风骚数百年,给人类文明烙上了不可磨灭的印记。然而到了十九世纪末期,由于美、德等国的崛起以及其他种种原因,英国逐渐失去优势,后来又在第二次世界大战中受到严重创伤,大英帝国国力日渐衰落,海外殖民地也在二战后纷纷宣告独立,大英帝国逐渐演变成一个组织松散的英联邦。这个曾经号称“世界工厂”和“日不落帝国”的国家又逐渐衰落,回归到欧洲,回归到欧洲的版图之内,回归到大西洋中的那个小岛。 关键词:世界工厂 日不落帝国 衰落

Abstract in English:
Great Britain, a small island which lies in the Atlantic Ocean, was once little-known in the long history of the development of the world and had only several millions of people. What' more, her territorial resources were also limited. However, she is the first country to open the door to the modern world ranging from the geographical edge to the center of the world. She had once been the leading power of the western countries for hundreds of years and also branded an indelible mark on the human civilization. However, in the late 19th century, with the rise of America and German and other factors, Britain began to lose the upper hand in the international competition. Afterwards, she suffered great loss in the two world wars. Britain began declining and the foreign colonies began to win independence one after another. The great Britain Empire became a loose federal country and Britain which was once known as the "workshop of the world" and "an empire in which the sun does not set" began declining gradually and returned to Europe, the European territory,the island in the Atlantic Ocean. Key words: the workshop of the world an empire in which the sun does not set decline Introduction

Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea to the west and off the European Continent. With the decline of the feudalism and the increase of the influence of the new-born bourgeoisie, she began her capitalist development. Through the closure and foreign plunder, expansion and aggression, she completed the primitive accumulation of capital. She became the first country to undergo the industrial revolution. Soon she became the workshop of the world and had the largest colonies. Of course, she became the most powerful country in the world. However, in the late 19th century with the competition of the new industrialized countries and other factors, she began to lose the upper hand. Afterwards, she suffered great loss in the two world wars. She began to decline. The colonies laid overseas began to revolt against Britain and won independences. Great Britain has gradually evolved into a loose organization of the Commonwealth. In the modern times, she tried to recover from it, but for different reasons she still developed slowly. Now she is still one of the major developed countries, she has been reduced to be a second-class world power that is always at the America's command in international affairs.  

1 The rise of Great Britain
As a small country, which had been invaded by several times, how could Great Britain developed into the workshop of the world and establish the largest empire that history has ever been seen? Let's explore it together. 1.1 The decline of feudalism

Feudalism came into being with the Norman Conquest, but comparatively speaking; England experienced a shorter period than most Asian countries and showed clear signs of declining in the 14th century. The Anglo-Norman king had once possessed large tracks of land in France .Henry II actually controlled two thirds of what is now in France. The Hundred Years' War deprived the English king of his possessions on the continent. The introduction of guns and gunpowder in war made castles of the feudal lords easy to be stormed .Feudalist separation was becoming impossible and was to the advantage of commercial development .Gunpowder also dealt a telling blow at the knights, pillars of feudal order and professional soldiers known as the "Flower of Feudalism" .Armed peasants and knights were now of the same height .The change...
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