LOCALLY AVAILABLE MATERIALS
Nasser Al Hashar Dr Syed Anisuddin
Tabassum Sadik Dr Sofia Tahseen
Caledonian College of Engineering
(A University College)
2322, CPO Seeb 111
SULTANATE OF OMAN
A b s t r a c t
Oil spill pollution, a severe environmental problem which persists in marine environment or in inland water across the world, has grown to an alarming magnitude with increased levels of oil production and transport. Its causes are either accidental or due to operation wherever oil is produced, transported, stored and used on sea or land. Hence, it is almost impossible for marine life to be free from the danger of an oil spill, though the discharge of oil is controlled by international convention. Prime concern for marine health life has created an instinct for undertaking this type of study by the authors. Objectives of the present work include testing of four different materials in separating oil from water having different oil concentrations along with its efficiency of removal. The work focuses on effect of time of contact and dosage of materials used for oil removal. Corchorus depressus, which is locally available, has proven to be more effective in addressing this problem and at the same time its byproduct does not give rise to unwanted hazards to the marine life.
Oil has long been used as a source of heat and light but due to the advent and innovations in automobile technology it has become a source of power for transport. Developments in the petrochemical industry warrants increased oil supply carried through pipelines and ships from places where it is found to the most convenient sites for refineries and chemical manufacturing plants. The quantity of oil transported over the sea has enormously increased in volume, encompassing tankers from capacity of 100,000 to 500,000 tonnes, resulting in increased possibility of spillage by accident or due to operation. In the event of an accident, oil pollution will be encountered in the marine environment or in inland water.
Sources of Oil Pollution
The major sources of oil spill pollution are the following:
Tanker accidents: Large tankers carrying oil over the sea increase the possibility of more oil spillage in the event of an accident. Ballast water: When unloaded, returning tankers fill sea water as ballast to be carried in the compartments previously occupied by oil. The walls of compartments are cleaned with dinging oil by powerful seawater jets hence ballast water inevitably acquires a considerable quantity of oil, which when discharged causes unacceptable oil spill pollution.
Moller (1997) studied the Nakhodka oil spill and suggested improvements with respect to shippers' perspective defining the role of industry in dealing with oil spill pollution. Dicks (1998) summarized impact of oil spills on different components of the marine environment as well as potential for natural recovery and manmade restoration/re-instatement measures envisaged according to international compensation conventions. Kerambrun and Parker (1998) dealt with shorelines inundated with thick black oil pollutants. Results of the study focus on the society to accept responsibility for repair of damage to environment through human intervention and carefully targeted clean-up activities. Wadsworth, Dicks & Lavigne (1999) stated that oil spills contaminate both agricultural facilities and livestock, which can be prevented by innumerable self-help response options like relocation of cages, transfer of stock and early harvest. He elucidated cooperation between ship owners, government and private bodies involved in addressing hassles due to oil spillage. Moller, Dicks, Whittle & Girin (1999) explored approaches for managing activity bans in fisheries and aquaculture sectors following oil spills. White (1999, 2000, 02) stated that...