The term Occidentalism is used in one of two main ways:
a) Stereotyped and sometimes dehumanizing views on the Western world, including Europe and the English-speaking world; and b) Ideologies or visions of the West developed in either the West or non-West. The former definition stresses negative constructions of the West and is often focused on the Islamic world. The latter approach has a broader range and includes both positive and negative representations. The term was used in the latter sense by James G. Carrier in his book Occidentalism: Images of the West (1995), and subsequently by Ian Buruma and Avishai Margalit in their book Occidentalism: the West in the Eyes of its Enemies (2004). The term is an inversion of Orientalism, Edward Said’s label for stereotyped Western views of the East. A number of earlier books had also used the term, sometimes with different meanings, such as Chen Xiaomei's Occidentalism: A Theory of Counter-Discourse in Post-Mao China (New York: Oxford, 1995). Eastern views of the West
In China "Traditions Regarding Western Countries" became a regular part of dynastic histories from the fifth-century CE (Bonnett, 2004). With the spread of European trade and imperialism during the 18th and 19th centuries the modern concept of an East/West distinction came to be more clearly articulated. Stereotyped portrayals of Westerners appear in many works of Indian, Chinese and Japanese artists during this period. At the same time Western influence in politics, culture, economics and science came to be constructed through an imaginative geography of West and East. In the late 19th century many Western cultural themes and images began appearing in Asian art and culture, especially in Japan. English words and phrases are prominent in Japanese advertising and popular culture, and many Japanese comics and cartoons are written around characters, settings, themes, and mythological figures derived from various Western...
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