Douglas Chin Yi Ren
Muhammad Anas Danial Ismail
• How Nonverbal Communication is Defined
• Types of nonverbal message codes
• How nonverbal can be a barrier in
• How other aspects of the culture are revealed
in nonverbal communication behaviors
LOUDER THAN WORDS!!
He’s probably very
Not all nonverbal behavior = nonverbal
Only when intentionally use symbol to
create meaning for others.
Nonverbal behavior as analogic rather
than digital(Burgoon and Saine)
3 major approaches to the studies of
Nonverbal is innate
Believed that nonverbal communication is
Nonverbal behavior is innate
Nonverbal behavior is believed to be genetically
Focus on the types of nonverbal behaviors and
the communication functions they perform.
• Nonverbal communication can be narrowly
used to refer to intentional use, as in using
a nonspoken symbol to communicate a
• Nonverbal communication as those
actions and attributes of human that have
socially shared meaning, are intentionally
sent or interpreted as intentional, are
consciously sent or consciously received,
and have the potential for feedback from
• Replacing spoken
Forming impressions that
Making relationships clear.
Reinforcing and modifying
NONVERBAL BEHAVIOR AS
• Some basic nonverbal behaviors seem to
be reliable cues as to a person’s state of
• Facial expressions are not learned but
• Most people can tell what another
person’s facial expression means, but
there are of course exceptions.
NON VERBAL AS CUES
• Innate behaviors can change as
we grow and learn our culture.
– Example :
• Smile universally
recognized as sign of
friendliness, it has other
meaning to other culture.
• Germans smile less than
people from US, but
doesn’t mean Germans
are less friendly.
• U.S. wives are usually
shown smiling at their
husband but Japanese
wives are rarely shown
The study of nonverbal communication
examines how messages are communicated
through physical behavior, vocal cues and
TYPES OF NONVERBAL
• The study of our use of personal distance
• “ Cultures differ substantially in their use of
personal space“ – Edward Hall(1959).
Distance Description Voice
Intimate Touching to 18
with people who
Personal 18 inches to 4
Casual 4 to 12 feet Distance
Public 12 feet Teacher in a
Body language or kinesics :
- Body Movement.
- Facial Expressions.
- Eye Contact.
“Communication depends heavily on the
actions,postures,movements and expression
of our bodies“ – by Desmond Morris(1979).
– the study of our use of time.
– ancient cultures have established their own
system in measuring time which differs from
one to another.
– Example :
• Muslims use moon-based calendar system,
– The usage of time varies from culture to
• Example :
– Arabs engage in up to half an hour of informal
conversation before turning to business.
Paralanguage include the
- Vocal characterizers such as