Q1. Explain what is meant by the term 'dementia'
Dementia is a broad term used to describe the symptoms that occur when the brain is affected by specific diseases and conditions.Dementia is a progressive disease and the symptoms will get gradually worse.|
Q2. Describe how dementia can affect a person if the following areas of the brain are damaged by dementia. Area of Brain| How damage to this area might affect a person with dementia| Frontal lobe| * Inability to plan a sequence of complex movements * Loss of spontaneity in interacting with others * Loss of flexibility in thinking * Persistence of a single thought * Inability to focus on a task * Mood changes * Changes in social behaviour * Changes in personality * Difficulty with problem solving * Inability to express language| Parietal lobe| * Inability to attend to more than one object at a time * Inability to name an object * Problems with reading, writing and drawing * Difficulty in distinguishing left from right * Difficulty with doing mathematics * Lack of awareness of certain body parts and/or surrounding space that can lead to difficulties in self-care * Difficulties with eye and hand coordination| Temporal lobe| * Difficulty in recognising familiar faces * Difficulty in understanding spoken words * Difficulty with identification of, and verbalization about objects * Short term memory loss * Interference with long term memory * Increased and decreased interest in sexual behaviour * Inability to categorise objects * Right lobe damage can cause persistent talking * Increased aggressive behaviour| Occipital lobe| * Defects in vision * Difficulty with locating objects in environment * Difficulty with identifying colours * Hallucinations * Visual agnosia * Difficulties with reading and writing| Cerebellum| * Loss of ability to coordinate fine movements * Loss of ability to walk * Inability to reach out and grab objects * Tremors * Vertigo * Slurred speech|
Q3. Explain how the following may be mistaken for dementia:
a) DepressionDepression is a condition which is caused by chemical imbalances in the brain. Some of the symptoms common to both Alzheimer's and depression include: * Loss of interest in once-enjoyable activities and hobbies * Social withdrawal * Memory problems * Sleeping too much or too little * Impaired concentrationb) DeliriumDelirium (also known as acute confusional state) is a medical condition that results in confusion and other disruptions in thinking and behaviour, including changes in perception, attention, mood and activity level.c) Age related memory impairmentAge related memory impairment is a natural part of the ageing process. as people get older, changes occur in all parts of the body, including the brain. As a result, some people may notice that it takes longer to learn new things, they don't remember information as well as they did, or they lose things like their keys or spectacles.|
Q4. Give an outline of the following models of dementia.
a) The medical model of dementia.The medical model views dementia as a clinical syndrome which is characterised by cognitive impairment about which nothing can be done. it focuses on the disease and places importance on treating the disease rather than the person. It focuses on the impairment as the problem. This model seeks to create dependency, restrict choice, disempower, devalue and reinforce stereotypes.The social model of dementia.The social model of dementia focuses on the individual, rather than the disease. It seeks to ensure the person's skills, capabilities and achievements are retained. The social model of care seeks to understand the emotions and behaviours of the person with dementia by placing him or her in the context of his or her social circumstances and biography. By learning about...