Decoding is the process translating a written word into a spoken word ("cracking the code"). An individual who has developed adequate decoding skills can begin to acquire fluency when reading no longer requires a conscious, deliberate effort. When fluent, reading becomes automatic and consists of word recognition rather than sounding out and combining syllables necessary to decode words. Teaching decoding provides students with the keys to unlock new words. Teaching the regular phonetic patterns of English can do this. These rules can be applied to words with which the student is already familiar. New words are then introduced beginning with simple words and working through more complex words. Finally, irregular phonemic patterns can be introduced and eventually mastered. Examples and strategies:
Look at this word [point to the first word. -
Semantic webbing is a strategy for reading instruction that enables students to activate their prior knowledge about a subject before reading a text. Semantic webbing is also known as concept mapping or word webbing. 1. Semantic Webbing Basics
* Semantic webbing allows students to think about a topic before they read a piece of text. You can use semantic webbing to activate and assess their prior knowledge about the topic. Simple Webbing
* In a basic web, you put a main topic in the center of the page and draw lines radiating from it with words that relate to that main topic at the end of every line. You create a web of related words. Convergent Webbing
* In convergent semantic webbing, you begin with a series of concepts or ideas and ask your students to tell you what they know about those concepts and how they think their text is going to deal with them. Divergent Mapping
* In divergent mapping, students list sub-topics for a main concept or idea, and put those sub-topics into categories, taking what they know about a topic and organize it into logical patterns. Uses
* Aside from pre-reading, you can use semantic webbing during reading by asking students to add to their webs with the new information they learned from the text. After reading, a semantic web can serve as the basis for a writing assignment.
Mental or psychic energy[clarification needed] or activity is the concept[who?] of a principle of activity powering the operation of the mind or psyche. Many modern psychologists or neuroscientists would equate it with increased metabolism in neurons of the brain. Reading Decoding Skills and the Elementary ReaderReading decoding skills are a critical component in the ability to read. Unfortunately, knowing how to teach reading decoding skills is a mystery to most parents. To better understand how to teach reading decoding skills, it is helpful to first understand what reading decoding skills are.What Are Reading Decoding Skills?Reading decoding skills is the ability to make sense of printed words. This involves recalling and recognizing the spoken word that is represented by the printed word. In other words, reading decoding skills is the ability to understand that a printed word represents the spoken word, and that this printed word is made of a sequence of phonemes. To take it a step further, reading decoding skills also require the ability to recognize the individual phonemes and phoneme blends.
In essence, to have strong reading decoding skills, your child must have a basic understanding of the written word and its many properties. In all, a word has five major properties:
• Conceptual relationship
• Phonological properties
• Morphological propertiesIn addition, you will focus on using the word, as well. In this way, your child sees you modeling ways to use the word. It also helps prove to him that you think learning new words is important. You might even want to develop this into a contest and keep score on who manages to use the word in a meaningful way the most throughout the week, then follow it up...
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