Narrative

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Adhikari 1

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE NARRATIVE STRUCTURES OF THE TEXTS: ARABY by JAMES JOYCE & THE LAST LEAF by O HENRY

A narrative is a story, whether told in prose or verse, involving events, characters, and what the characters say and do. Some literary forms such as the novel and short story in prose, and the epic and romance in verse, are explicit narratives that are told by a narrator. In drama , the narrative is told, but not evolves by means of the direct presentation on stage of actions and speeches of the characters. It should be noted that there is an implicit narrative element even in many lyric poems. In William Wordsworth ‘s “The Solitary Reaper”, for example, we infer from what the lyric speaker says that, coming unexpectedly in the Scottish Highlands upon a girl reaping and singing, he stops, attends, mediates, and then resumes his climb up the hill. While this paper is based on the comparative study of any two texts on the basis of narrative mode. Hence lets begin too discuss what narrative mode is all about, well it is the set of methods which the author of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical story uses to convey the plot to the audience. Narration, the process of presenting the narrative, occurs because of the narrative mode. It encompasses several overlapping areas of concern, most importantly narrative point-of-view, which determines through whose perspective the story is viewed and narrative voice, which determines a set of consistent features regarding the way through which the story is communicated to the audience. This paper, based on the stylistic analysis of the point of view in two texts Araby and The Last Leaf well it tries to explore the narrative strategy of James Joyce and O. Henry .

Adhikari 2 Defining the short story as a private art intended to satisfy the standards of the individual solitary critical reader Frank O’ Connor concludes that the private nature of the twentieth century short story impels it to derive its subject matter , situations and characters from an isolated or “submerged population’. Like most of the stories in Dubliners ‘ Araby ’ is a study in alienation. It is also, an initiation exercise in the best tradition of the genre, preoccupied as it is with the passage of its boy narrator from relatively uncomplicated perceptions and pastimes to a considerably more complex view of things. The acquisition of knowledge by the protagonist is accompanied by a process of withdrawal and distancing that is both a means and a measure of the psychological growth explored in the story. Rohrberger and Burns’ assertion that”…the protagonist’s conflict-the question of his identity -is embodied in the structure of the narrative “ may be reasonably confirmed Joyce’s use of certain narrative strategies that tend in that direction. From an apparently innocuous third person narration the story slips unobtrusively into the first person mode with the use of the collective pronoun “our” in the shift to the first person narration is total. However, as J.L .Morrissey has pointed out in his insightful study ‘Narrative Strategies in “Araby” the harmonizing of points of view does not end with the shift from one to the other but achieves a further problematization in the subtle and grafted shifting of the developed individuality, what he calls the ‘isolated “I”’ from the simple first person ,”I liked” ,”I wished” and the collective consciousness ,”our house” and “ our shouts” instinctively expressing a sense of belonging , however tenuous to a group of friends .However ,with his withdrawal...
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