Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Multiverse, Many-worlds interpretation, Universe
  • Pages : 13 (4235 words )
  • Download(s) : 565
  • Published : December 1, 2010
Open Document
Text Preview
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Multiverse (disambiguation).
Physical cosmology

Universe · Big Bang
Age of the universe
Timeline of the Big Bang
Ultimate fate of the universe
[show]Early universe
[show]Expanding universe
[show]Structure Formation
v • d • e
The multiverse (or meta-universe, metaverse) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including the historical universe we consistently experience) that together comprise everything that exists: the entirety of space, time, matter, and energy as well as the physical laws and constants that describe them. The term was coined in 1895 by the American philosopher and psychologist William James.[1] The various universes within the multiverse are sometimes called parallel universes. The structure of the multiverse, the nature of each universe within it and the relationship between the various constituent universes, depend on the specific multiverse hypothesis considered. Multiverses have been hypothesized in cosmology, physics, astronomy, religion, philosophy, transpersonal psychology and fiction, particularly in science fiction and fantasy. In these contexts, parallel universes are also called "alternative universes", "quantum universes", "interpenetrating dimensions", "parallel dimensions", "parallel worlds", "alternative realities", and "alternative timelines", among others. Contents [hide]

1 Multiverse hypotheses in physics
1.1 Tegmark's classification
1.1.1 Level I: Beyond our cosmological horizon
1.1.2 Level II: Universes with different physical constants
1.1.3 Level III: Many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics 1.1.4 Level IV: Ultimate Ensemble
1.2 Cyclic theories
1.3 M-theory
1.4 Anthropic principle
1.5 WMAP cold spot
1.6 Criticisms
1.6.1 Non-scientific claims
1.6.2 Indirect Evidence
1.6.3 Occam's Razor
2 Multiverse hypotheses in philosophy and logic
2.1 Modal realism
2.2 Trans-world identity
2.3 Fictional realism
3 Multiverse hypotheses in religion and spirituality
3.1 Hinduism
3.2 Islam
3.3 Planes of existence
3.4 Afterlife
3.5 Eschatology
4 In popular culture
4.1 Literature
4.2 Film
4.3 Television
4.4 Other fictional uses
5 See also
6 References
6.1 Notes
6.2 Bibliography
7 External links
[edit]Multiverse hypotheses in physics

[edit]Tegmark's classification
Cosmologist Max Tegmark has provided a taxonomy of universes beyond the familiar observable universe. The levels according to Tegmark's classification are arranged such that subsequent levels can be understood to encompass and expand upon previous levels, and they are briefly described below.[2][3] [edit]Level I: Beyond our cosmological horizon

A generic prediction of chaotic inflation is an infinite ergodic universe, which, being infinite, must contain Hubble volumes realizing all initial conditions. Accordingly, an infinite universe will contain an infinite number of Hubble volumes, all having the same physical laws and physical constants. In regard to configurations such as the distribution of matter, almost all will differ from our Hubble volume. However, because there are infinitely many, far beyond the cosmological horizon, there will eventually be Hubble volumes with similar, and even identical, configurations. Tegmark estimates that an identical volume to ours should be about 1010115 meters away from us (a number larger than a googolplex).[4][5] [edit]Level II: Universes with different physical constants

"Bubble universes", every disk is a bubble universe (Universe 1 to Universe 6 are different bubbles, they have physical constants that are different from our universe), our universe is just one of the bubbles. In the chaotic inflation theory, a variant of the cosmic inflation theory, the multiverse as a whole is stretching and will continue doing so forever, but some regions of space stop stretching and form distinct...
tracking img