CHAPTER 2 MULTIPLE ACCESS
A limited amount of bandwidth is allocated for wireless services. A wireless system is required to accommodate as many users as possible by effectively sharing the limited bandwidth. Therefore, in the field of communications, the term multiple access could be defined as a means of allowing multiple users to simultaneously share the finite bandwidth with least possible degradation in the performance of the system. There are several techniques how multiple accessing can be achieved. The are four basic schemes , : 1. Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) 2. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) 3. Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) 4. Space Division Multiple Access (SDMA) 2.1 Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) FDMA is one of the earliest multiple-access techniques for cellular systems when continuous transmission is required for analog services. In this technique the bandwidth is divided into a number of channels and distributed among users with a finite portion of bandwidth for permanent use as illustrated in figure 2.1. The vertical axis that represents the code is shown here just to make a clear comparison with CDMA (discussed later in this chapter). The channels are assigned only when demanded by the users. Therefore when a channel is not in use it becomes a wasted resource. FDMA channels have narrow bandwidth (30Khz) and therefore they 5
are usually implemented in narrowband systems. Since the user has his portion of the bandwidth all the time, FDMA does not require synchronization or timing control, which makes it algorithmically simple. Even though no two users use the same frequency band at the same time, guard bands are introduced between frequency bands to minimize adjacent channel interference. Guard bands are unused frequency slots that separate neighboring channels. This leads to a waste of bandwidth. When continuous transmission is not required, bandwidth goes wasted since it is not being utilized for...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document