Muddling Through

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systems theory and policy pracitce
An exploration
Systems theory suggests that nature of a problem and solution cannot be understood separately. Problems are complex by using systems theory we can rationalize aspects of existing practices and suggesting directions or improvement. 2 ways to how systems theory can be applied to policy making * Way of understanding what is happening when the policy is made –systems analysi of policy * And it can be used as a way of generating concepts

Citing examples from Sri Lankan Context :

Road networks

If wecompare the kilo metres of roads per square kilo metre of land in Sri Lanka, the country is ranked with developed countries like England and Ireland. But the conditions of the road network are so appalling that it has caused incalculable costs to Sri Lankans by way of lost time, money, life and temper. While the investments in the road network have been done in a haphazard way, they have been done in the wrong way too. Roads are constructed but their life span is so short that they become unmotorable very soon. After that they are not maintained properly. Hence, the road users have to undergo enormous hardships making roads one of the biggest obstacles to economic development

Railway network

Development of the country’s railway system as a major transport method as well. Unlike during colonial times, Sri Lanka’s railways are being run continuously at a loss because the government has filled it with excess labour and been unwilling to revise the fares to economical levels. The result is that year after year the tax payers are called upon to bear the bill and that bill amounting to on average some 4 to 5 billion rupees per annum is sufficient to run six universities of medium size in the country. So, the quarrel is why the general tax payers should bear this burden since every one of them does not use the railway services

Water available for irrigation and drinking

In order to raise funds, the...
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