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# 2012 University of South Africa
All rights reserved
Printed and published by the
University of South Africa
Muckleneuk, Pretoria
APC1502/1/2013±2017
98832522
3B2

A4 6 pica

(iii)

APC1502/1/2013±2017

Contents

Chapter

Page

ORIENTATION WITH REGARD TO THIS MODULE
Introduction
General note
How to approach the module material
Reading
1

(vii)
(vii)
(vii)
(vii)
(ix)
1

STUDY UNIT 1: IDEOLOGY AND SOME DEFINITION-RELATED
PROBLEMS

1

STUDY UNIT 2: AFRICAN POLITICAL THOUGHT AS IDEOLOGY
Pan-Africanism
Negritude
African socialism
African humanism
Ideology, performance and the future

3
3
3
4
5
6

TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 2
2

IDEOLOGY IN AFRICAN POLITICS

7

THE POLITICS OF ETHNICITY AND CLASS IN AFRICA

8

STUDY UNIT 3: INTRODUCTION
Definition-related issues

8
8

TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 3
STUDY UNIT 4: MODERNISATION AND ETHNIC CONFLICT
Ethnic compacts
Ethnic intermediaries
Ethnic balance and proportionality
The breakdown of ethnic compacts

9
12
12
12
13

TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 4

14

STUDY UNIT 5: CASE STUDY: ETHNICITY AND THE NATION-STATE IN
NIGERIA

14

TEST YOURSELF: UNIT 5

14

STUDY UNIT 6: THE POLITICAL RELEVANCE OF CLASS IN AFRICA
Definition-related issues
The nature and meaning of class and its relevance to stratification Foreign bourgeoisie
African bourgeoisie
Lumpenproletariat and African peasantry
Stratification in precolonial Africa

14
14
15
16
16
17
18

(iv)

Chapter

Page

The formation of classes in colonial and postcolonial Africa Class as a source of political conflict in Africa
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 6

19
23
24

POLITICAL PARTIES AND SINGLE-PARTY RULE
STUDY UNIT 7: THE ORIGINS OF POLITICAL PARTIES IN AFRICA
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 7

25
25
26

STUDY UNIT 8: POLITICAL PARTIES IN FRENCH AND BRITISH AFRICA TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 8

27
29

STUDY UNIT 9: POSTINDEPENDENCE TRENDS IN AFRICAN POLITICAL PARTIES The move towards single-party rule
Methods of implementing one-party rule
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 9

29
30
30
32

STUDY UNIT 10: JUSTIFICATION FOR SINGLE-PARTY RULE
Traditional argument
Unity and development argument
Vanguard justification
Objective conditions that promoted the single-party system
Performance of the single-party system
The limited role of other interest and civil society groups
Subordination of the party to the state
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 10

33
33
34
34
35
36
37
37
38

4

MILITARY RULE IN AFRICA
STUDY UNIT 11: MILITARY RULE
The prevalence of military rule in Africa
Methods of attaining power
What do you understand by ``civilian government'`?
Reasons for assumption of power by the military
Organisational ability of the military
Contagion effect
Encouragement by foreign powers
Models of civil/military relations
Civil supremacy model
Watchdog model
Balance wheel model
Direct model
Social transformation model
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 11

39
39
39
43
44
44
44
45
45
45
46
46
47
47
47
50

5

PERSONAL RULE IN AFRICA
STUDY UNIT 12: PERSONAL RULE
Characteristics of personal rule
Conspiracy
Factionalism and clientism

51
51
52
52
52

3

(v)

APC1502/1

Chapter

Page

Corruption
Political purges and rehabilitations
Succession manoeuvres
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 12

53
53
54
55

6

THE STATE AND CIVIL SOCIETY
STUDY UNIT 13: EXPLAINING CIVIL SOCIETY
Traditional organisations as part of civil society
Relations between civil society and the state
Resurgence of civil society in Africa
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 13

56
56
58
59
59
60

7

DEMOCRATISATION PROCESS IN AFRICA
STUDY UNIT 14: DEMOCRATISATION
TEST YOURSELF: STUDY UNIT 14

61
61
63

STUDY UNIT 15: AFRICA'S SECOND INDEPENDENCE
Waves of democratic struggles
Rise of protest movements
Internal resistance
Collapse of authoritarian regimes in Eastern Europe
Pressure...
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