Through the analysis of various hypothetical approaches to leadership and behaviour style one may effectively come to understand the leadership role taken by the Japanese president. Naoto Kan. A greater understanding of specific leadership and behaviour preferences specific to culture and environment used within corporate environments can be achieved by referring to the relevant scholarly articles written by Green, Nebeker, Boni’s Fukushige and Spicer. Each work accurately demonstrates examples of alternative approaches to planning and control that can be directly applied to the floods scenario. The ideas explored in this literature will then be used as a conceptual framework upon which the response of president Kan can be analysed in relation to his leadership of through and after the 2011 Japanese earthquake / tsunami. Through this analysis, one may reach a degree of understanding where it is possible to critically assess president Kan’s leadership and behaviour during the Japan’s natural disaster. 2.0 Management Theory on Planning and Controlling
2.1 Article 1
The academic study undertaken Fukushige and Spicer refers to the importance of understanding the effectiveness of a particular leadership style from assessing the needs and wants from an employee’s retrospective. Most studies tend to analysis leadership practices from a leader’s perspective. Very little research has considered followers' leadership preferences, therefore representing a significant avenue for study given that leader effectiveness is potentially defined by the responses of those around them (cited by Fukushige and Spicer 2007, p.508). Their study goes on further to argue that the popular Bass and Avolio's (1997) "full-range leadership Model" which conceptualizes transformational and transactional forms, regardless of its popularity, was developed in the U.S.A and ideals differ to that of their case study country of Japan. In many cases culture can create some problems in using universal leadership concepts. The findings of Fukushige and Spicer suggest that cultural difference plays an important role in effective leadership. There are certain values that are unique to individual countries and although over time companies might experience more variation and individualism, the culture and idealisms have a longer lasting effect.
2.2 Article 2
The study of Joseph, Schneider, Tamera looked at the effects of management also from an employees perspective. The study manipulated transformational and transactional leadership styles to examine their influence on individuals' performance on a stressful task, and on perceived social support, self-efficacy beliefs, emotions, and stressor appraisals. The study focused on the importance and relationship between leadership and style and whether or not varying methods of leadership can differentiate performance. Participants were subjected to three different leadership styles relating to an instructional video for a stressful task. Participants' psychological, emotional, and motivational responses to the videos were assessed prior to their engagement with the task. The transformational leadership condition was associated with enhanced task performance, higher social support perceptions, greater efficacy beliefs, lower negative affect, and lower threat appraisals compared to the transactional conditions. (Joseph et al.) The results indicate that a leadership style has a very direct effect on task performance. The difference in output varied indefinitely between the different styles of leadership and presented a good opportunity for further research in this area. Once again the study drew attention to the fact a particular leadership style is only effective with a particular follower. 2.3 Article 3
Green, Nebeker and Boni’s study looks into the Personality and Situational Effects on Leader Behavior. The focal point of their study is that even though Fiendler’s contingency model of...