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Upper-Intermediate B2 / Lesson 1
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Present Simple and Present Continuous
Use the simple present (I do) to talk about things in general or things that happen repeatedly: Excuse me, do you speak Spanish? Use the present continuous (I am doing) to talk about something that is happening at or close to the time of speaking: The ice is melting. Could you put it in the freezer? Use the simple present for a permanent situation: My grandparents live in Spain. For a temporary situation use the present continuous: I'm living with my cousins until I find an apartment. People often use time expressions such as at the moment, at present, currently, just and still to emphasize that the action or event is happening now: Have you started dinner? – I'm just starting. If you want to emphasize repeated actions with words like always, continually, or forever: They're always having dance parties that end late at night.
Present Perfect Simple and Present Perfect Continuous
You can use the Present Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect Simple to talk about something that began in the past and affects the situation that exists now. Jerry's clothes are covered with ink. The newspaper was printed in black ink. He has been printing the newspaper. He has printed the newspaper. Often the difference between the Present Perfect Continuous and the Present Perfect Simple is simply one of emphasis: I've been listening to their arguments with great interest. (emphasizes the activity; that is my listening to their arguments) I've listened to their arguments with great interest. (emphasizes the result; I may now react to what was said or discussed) You can use either the Present Perfect Continuous or the Present Perfect Simple to talk about activities or events that are repeated again and again until now: Joe has been kicking...