Motivation Theories

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Hierarchy of Needs Theory   Abraham Maslow is the man behind the highly-known motivation theory which was defined by the hierarchy of needs. Maslow concentrated on five existing needs in each different human. Physiological Needs Safety Needs Belonging or social Needs Esteem Needs Self-actualization needs. Each of these needs is described in the exhibit above. Maslow identifies the physiological need as the first step in order to reach to the Self-actualization needs. When each need is fully satisfied the above need becomes the next target to be fulfilled. For every company that is looking to motivate its employees, it is required to know what position of the hierarchy that employee is currently occupying and try to satisfy that need to reach a higher in the future. Maslow divided the hierarchy of needs into two different orders: Lower-order needs: which are described as the needs that are satisfied intrinsically and particularly the physiological and Safety needs. Higher-order needs: which are described as the needs that need to be fulfilled extrinsically and particularly the social, esteem and Self Actualization needs. Many managers practice this theory as attributed by its ease of understanding and implementation of the need, and it’s until now widely recognized but the problem is that there are no empirical evidence to validate the need and no scientific confirmation for the organization and order of the needs level on the hierarchy.   Existence–Relatedness–Growth theory     The Existence Relatedness and Growth Theory also known as the ERG was elaborated by Clayton Alderfer. The theory is based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs as seen on the exhibit above. Alderfer reanalyzed the theory in order to validate it. Clayton divided the five Maslow’s needs into three essential needs: The Existence Need that covers level 1 and level 2 of Maslow’s hierarchy is related to the essential elements needed for existence. The Relatedness need that covers level 3 and external...
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