Motivation and Behavior

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MOTIVATION AND BEHAVIOR
To be motivated is to be moved into action, or to decide on a change in action, according to the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer (1841/1960). Motivation is an internal energy that creates a change in action for an incentive. Motivation can be caused by specific needs or the basic need of increasing pleasure and decreasing pain. Motivation begins with internal and external sources. Internal sources include biologica and psychological variables, while external sources include incentives that are achieved by the motivation.

Biological variables include the direct biological needs of one’s body. As there is little food in one’s stomach the motivation to eat food increases. An example of the internal source of biological variables on motivation is the influence that ghrelin has on hunger. Ghrelin is a hormone that increases the need for eating and hunger. During a research study two groups of participants were given different injections, one group was injected with ghrelin, while the other group was injected with a placebo. The results were that the participants injected with ghrelin ate more and reported more hunger when at a buffet where one could eat as much as they want. The incentive here is to satisfy the biological need to eat.

Psychological variables in relation to internal sources “refer to motives and are studied indirectly through measurable indicators”(). When stepping on a scale, a higher weight indicates a greater motive or need. A prime example of the psychological variables is one’s need to belong. This occurs when a person’s social affiliation is lower than desired. This depends on a person’s ability to interoperate social cues. Individuals that feel more of a need to belong are more accurate at interpreting social cues. To prove this theory an experiment was drawn where people with different levels of the need to belong were more accurate in identifying facial expressions.

Another source of motivation is the...
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