The Monroe Doctrine causes and effects

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The Monroe Doctrine can be considered as the United States first major declaration to the world as a fairly new nation. The Monroe Doctrine was a statement of United States policy on the activity and rights of powers in the Western Hemisphere during the early to mid 1800?s. It was expressed during President Monroe's seventh annual message to Congress on December 2nd 1823. The Monroe Doctrine deterred European imperialist powers from encroaching upon the boundaries of the United States and established America as an independent nation that did not want neither to involve itself in European internal affairs nor for European imperialists to colonize America.

Around the time of the Napoleonic Wars in the 1820s some of Spain?s colonies gained their independence. The United States was the first nation to recognize their independence from Spain. After Napoleon was defeated, the monarchy in Spain regained power once again. The Spanish felt embarrassed and ashamed after losing their colonies. In 1815 Tsar Alexander I of Russia and the monarchies of Austria and Prussia formed the Holy Alliance. This alliance was a group set out to maintain autocracy throughout the world. Spain then demanded the return of its colonies of the New World. With the possibility of help from the Holy Alliance and France, Spain?s goal was looking realistic. [Bibliography: R. Rush, Esqr, Pg: 234,235]

The Americans feared that if the Spanish colonies were recaptured the United States might be their next target. Great Britain refused to let the Spanish take back their new independent colonies. As free countries the new independent nations could trade more goods with Great Britain. However, if Spain regains control of their former colonies then the trade with Great Britain would decrease dramatically. The Russian Tsar attempted to extend his interest of expansion in North America. In 1821 Russia had claims on parts of the Oregon territory. On September 14th of the same year, Tsar Alexander I issued an Imperial Ukase, appealing that no foreign vessels could come within Russian territory. Although the decree was never enforced, John Quincy Adams, the Secretary of State during this period, strongly opposed it. Adams felt that many regions of North America were still unexplored such as Alaska and North Western Canada. On July 17th, 1823 John Q Adams declared that the United States should challenge Russia?s Imperial Ukase on the North American continent. President James Monroe agreed with John Q Adams? statement and was wiling to use it in his second annual message to the congress. The Americans and the British had selfish reasons to keep the Holy Alliance out of the New World. [Bibliography: R. Rush, Esqr, Pg: 234, 235.]

George Canning, a British Foreign Minister and a representative of British trading interests, sent a message to the United States on August 20th, 1823. He said that Spain would never recover their colonies and that England did not want the colonies nor wanted to see anyone else take control of them. Richard Rush, an American Minister, was asked the question, by George Canning, that if they could make a joint declaration between the United States and the Great Britain. Rush was shocked by Canning?s proposition because it had been only 40 years since the American Revolution and the War of 1812 was just awhile back. At first without consulting John Q. Adams he had agreed to the proposition. President Monroe favored this idea along with the former presidents Jefferson and Madison [Bibliography: Thomas Jefferson, Pg: 1, 2]. Although Great Britain and the United States were on the same track, they had their differences. The United States had recognized the colonies as new nations while Great Britain had not. George Canning said that Great Britain would use their powerful Royal Navy to stop European intervention whether or not they had a joint declaration. Then on October 12th, 1823 Canning had a number of meetings with Prince Jules de Polignac who...
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