In these few years, molecular gastronomy has become a key topic and it is the new fashion for chefs to offer their customers. This is a new culinary trend called molecular cooking has been investigated as the most exciting development in haute gastronomy. Molecular gastronomy is refers to a modern style of cooking, which is a discipline practiced by both scientists and food professionals that studies the physical and chemical processes that occur while cooking. As well as it is the use of such studies process in many professional kitchen and lab. Nowadays, molecular gastronomy can be seen in some haute hotels and restaurants, which has shown that this is getting popular. However, the confusion of molecular gastronomy has been appearing to be increase and what it was intended to achieve (Consin, J et al 2010). Therefore, this assignment is to explore the molecular gastronomy. Firstly, it is providing an overview of culinary changes through different periods including Tudor Kitchen, Georgian Kitchen and Victorian Kitchen as well as gastronomic figures especially Georges Ausguste Escoffier (1846-1935) who was a French chef had great contributions on gastronomy and an historical perspective and then summarise the origins and background of molecular gastronomy and the current literature of this subject. Literature Review
1. The overview of culinary change
In 17th century, gastronomy had major changes, new foods arrived in this century and the taste had change. The consumption of exotic birds such as peacock, swan, crane and heron decreased and they preferred meats were beef, veal, and mutton as well as huge quantities were still remained but only freshwater fish e.g. salmon and trout were the preferred (Strong, R 2003). In this period of Tudor kitchen, the consumption of meat in the Middle Ages was very expensive, rare and very much reflected social class who could afforded. However, the consumption of bread and pottage were reflected to lower class and peasantry as well as soft cheese and eggs were available if they had hen and cow (Paston- Williams, S 1995). Almost peasantry and lower class kept animal such as pig in order to provide some fresh meat, also animal were not only used in cooking, it was used in culinary and clothing, items like bone for spoons and leather for shoes and clothes. In terms of cooking utensils, most of the utensils were made in wood or terracotta clay and no fork were used as it was unknown at that period. The changes in Georgian time, sweet and savoury had launched in Georgian kitchen. Also, wooden trenchers and cooper pans had replaced by pewter, silver and copper pans. There was a big change in terms of British culinary habits in Victorian Period in 18th Century as well as there were more British citizens began to used imported goods. People lifestyle changed including what people ate and the way they preserved and prepared food, many kitchen tools had been invented and improved. Eating our market had been increased as well as foreign food. Taste had major changed between 1986 and 1990, fast food outlets turnover increased by 83% and café and restaurant increased by 63% (Cullen, 1994). The greatest attribute of a chef has been to create a successful and lasting fashion. This is throughout history and the tradition has also continued to be well demonstrated over the last three hundred years, by chefs such as Alexis Soyer (1809-1859) and Antonin Careme (1784-1834). However other great gastronomic figure Georges Auguste Escoffier (1846-1935) had also emerged to contribute to the development of cuisine and gastronomy. Escoffier was a French chef and legendary figure among chefs and gourmands in gastronomy. He was also one of the most important people that developed of modern French cuisine and his cuisine technique was based on Antoine Careme (Escofffier, 1921). Moreover, Escoffier’s recipes, techniques and approaches to gastronomy are still highly influence today, not only France,...
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