Models of Organizational Behavior
* The Elements of an Organizational Behavior System
* The Role of Management’s Philosophy and Paradigm
* Alternative Models of Organizational Behavior and Their Effects * Trends in the Use of These Models
Table 1.Elements of an Organizational Behavior System
Elements of the System
The Philosophy (model) of organizational behavior held by management consists and integrated set of assumptions and beliefs about the way things are, the purpose for these activities, and the way they should be. These philosophies are sometimes explicit and occasionally implicit, in the minds of manager. Five major organizational behavior models includes autocratic, custodial, supportive, collegial and system.
Selected Element of a Philosophy Statement
* We are committed to quality, cost-effectiveness, and technical excellence. * People should treat each other with consideration, trust and respect. * Each person is valuable, is unique, and makes a contribution. * All employees should be unfailingly committed to excellent performance. * Teamwork can, and should, produce far more than the sum of individual efforts. Team members must be reliable and committed to the team.
* Innovation is essential
* Open communications are important for attaining success. * Decision should be reached participatively.
Two sources of Philosophy of Organizational Behavior
* Fact Premise are acquired through direct and indirect lifelong learning and are very useful in guiding our behavior.
* Value Premise represent our views of the desirability of certain goals and activities. Value premises are variable beliefs we hold and are therefore under our control.
Values - the rules by which we make decisions about right and wrong, should and shouldn’t, good and bad. They also tell us which are more or less important, which is useful when we have to trade off meeting one value over another.
Vision - It represents a challenging portrait of the organization and its member can be – a possible, and desirable future. Leaders need to create exciting projections about the organization should go and what major changes lie ahead. Once the vision is established, persistent and enthusiastic communication is required to sell it throughout the ranks of employees so they will embrace it with commitment.
Mission - Identifies the business it is in, the market niches it tries to serve, the types of customers it is likely to have, and the reasons for its existence. It even includes a brief listing of the competitive advantages, or strengths, that the firm believes it has. It is more descriptive and less future-oriented than vision. It needs to be converted to goal to become operational and useful.
Goals - are relatively concrete formulations of achievements the organization is aiming for within set periods of time, such as one to five years. Goal setting is a complex process, for top management’s goals need to be merged with those of employees, who bring their psychological, social, and economic needs with them to an organization.
McGregor’s Theory X and Y, Alternative Sets of Assumption about Employees
* The typical person dislikes work and will avoid it if possible.
* The typical person lacks responsibility, has little ambition, and seeks security above all.
* Most people must be coerced, controlled, and threaten with punishment to get them to work.
* Managerial role is to coerce and control employees
* Work is natural as play or rest.
* People are not inherently lazy. They have become that way as result of experience.
* People will exercise self-direction and self-control in the service of objectives to which they are committed.
* People have potential. Under proper conditions they learn to accept and seek responsibility. They have imagination,...