In Nigeria 98% of Global System for Mobile (GSM) base stations (cell sites) are sited within 20 meters from residential, offices, schools, business buildings. Cell phone antennas emit microwave frequencies, which are non-ionizing radiation. A research was conducted by measuring field data of radiation from GSM base antennas in Nigeria for supporting evidence public health risks from gsm radiations that are documented in published scientific studies in respected, peer-reviewed journals. Therefore, measurements of the exposure levels of radio frequency (RF) Electromagnetic energy (EME) radiated from Mobile telephone base stations were conducted in following manner. The base stations antenna on these sites are the more common panel antenna, which divide the area around the base station into three sectors (i.e. α = 1200, β = 1200, and γ = 1200). With this arrangement of the three Antennas all the region around the base stations are covered. All measurements were made with an Agilent Technologies model E4407B ESA-E series spectrum analyzer. A horn antenna that was connected to the analyzer via a coaxial cable, received the measured signals over the frequency bands of interest. This was extremely sensitive equipment which accurately measured RF background even in rural areas far from any transmitters.
The analyses of the measured data showed that the radiation power densities are lower than 10 μW/cm2. Comparing these power densities to those found in documented evidence of health effects showed that the health effects of these radiations are non-thermal in nature. Exposure to gsm radiations are linked to fatigue, headache, decreased concentration, dizziness, local irritation, burning, tumour induction, sperm motility, morphology and viability, and a reduction in male fertilizing potential. The most common associated health effect due to radiation from GSM antennas is headache. Therefore, it is advisable that mobile base stations should not be sited within 300m from residential, offices, school buildings.
Radio frequency electromagnetic field (900 MHz) induces oxidative damage to DNA and biomembrane in tobacco shoot cells (Nicotiana tabacum)-A research conducted in Croatia
Personal (cellular) telecommunications is a rapidly evolving technology that uses microwave radiation to communicate between a fixed base station and mobile user. Most systems employ a hand-held cellular telephone where the radiation antenna is close to the user's head. Exposure to radio frequency signals generated by the use of cellular telephones have been reported to exert adverse effects on vital biological molecules i.e. genotoxicity ion leakage and changes in cell membrane permeability A number of reports showed that RF can enhance the effect of a chemical mutagen and thus indirectly exert genotoxic effect . Some studies have given evidence for an excitation of resonant oscillations in chain molecules, e.g. for certain proteins and DNA molecules, within the RF signal range. Allegedly, they may lead to structural changes and chain breaks also in the non-thermal EMF range, thus being a potential (genotoxic) EMF interaction mechanism. In the study of Fereirra et al. MDA and carbonyl contents revealed no evidence of oxidative damage caused by RF-EMF using rat frontal cortex. However, comparison between studies is somewhat difficult and it is mostly due to variations in field conditions like frequency, modulation, specific absorption rate and/or RF-EMF homogeneity and duration of RF exposure. The single cell gel electrophoresis or comet assay quantitatively measures DNA damage resolved as strand breaks in individual nuclei. The comet assay has been suggested as one method for monitoring human exposure to genotoxic agents .It has been stated by many studies that higher plants can be used as monitors of environmental mutagens and that...