Mla vs. Apa

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MLA versus APA

MLA and APA are two styles of writing that are used in books, articles, websites and databases.

MLA stands for the Modern Language Association and is used in the study and teaching of language and literature. Disciplines that use this format are English, foreign languages and other humanities. An importance factor in it's formatting is it's list of sources. In MLA style writing, this is called a “Works Cited” list. In this list, the last names of the authors or editors are alphabetized. If a work has no author or editor, the first word of the title other than A, An, or The is used. The first line of the work being cited is not indented, but each of the following line must be indented by a half inch. MLA papers do not require a cover page unless specified by the instructor and the page numbers are written on the top right corner of each page with the authors last name (ex. Kesan 1).

Example of an article
In text citation:
Even though many companies now routinely monitor employees through electronic means, “there may exist less intrusive safeguards for employers” (Kesan 293).

Works cited:
Kesan, Jay P. “Cyber-Working or Cyber-Shirking? A First Principles Examination of Electronic Privacy in the Workplace.” Florida Law Review 54.2 (2002): 289-332. Print.

How this is constructed in the following. The author's name (last name first), followed by the tittle of the article, then written in italics, the name of the magazine or periodical where the article was taken, it's volume, then the date or year of publication, the page number and it's medium.

Example of a website
In text citation:
... sees athletes' imminent turn to genetic modification as “merely a continuation of the way sports work” (Rudebeck)

Works cited:
Rudebeck, Clare. “The Eyes Have It.” Independent London. Independent News and Media, 27 Apr. 2005. Web. 13 Sept. 2010

How this is constructed in the following. The author's name (last name first), followed by the tittle of the article, then written in italics, the title of the website, the sponsor of the website, then it's update date, it's medium and finally the date it was accessed.

Example of a database
In text citation:
Jenson states, “Although most college faculty are aware of the problems that students encounter when conducting research using the Internet, fewer recognize why their students lack success when using the electronic databases and indexes to which the institution's library subscribes”.

Works cited:
Jenson, Jill D. “It's the Information Age, So Where's the Information?” College Teachings 52.3 (2004): 107-12. Academic Search Premier. Web. 13 Sept. 2010

How this is constructed in the following. The author's name (last name first), followed by the tittle of the article, then written in italics, the name of the periodical, it's volume and issue numbers, date of publication, inclusive pages, then the name of the database, it's medium and finally the date it was accessed.

Example of a book
In text citation:
Culler remarks, “There must be an initial situation, a change involving some sort of reversal, and a resolution that makes the change significant” (85).

Works cited:
Culler, Jonathan. Literary Theory, A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997. Print.

How this is constructed in the following. The author's name (last name first), followed by the tittle of the article written in italics, the city of publication, the publisher, the date of publication and it's medium.

APA stands for the American Psychological Association and is used to provide instructions on basic research techniques. Disciplines that use this format are Psychology, political science and other social sciences. Formatting a list of sources is different then that of MLA. In APA style writing, it is called a “Reference” list. In this list, the last names of the authors or editors are also alphabetized and the first line of the work...
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