Cornelia Fuller
Survey of Mathematical Methods
Liar Liar
Tonya Meisner
September 16th, 2012

This week’s assignment is about the use of misleading statistics. Companies and individuals use statistics in a variety of way in order to provide information on certain things. The use of misleading statistics, while not ethical, could be viewed as valuable, if it increases profit margins or awareness of the stated topic of the statistic in a biased way.

Question number 8 provides a statistic that Vitamin E is an antioxidant that may help fight heart disease and cancer. (Bluman, 2011) The phrase “may help” does not include any specific sample groups. It is not known in whom the vitamin will fight heart disease and or cancer in. the reader could imply that vitamin E would fight both cancer and heart disease without any concrete supporting evidence.

The graph in question number 2 is considered misleading for representing sales of pumpkins in 2000 by using a much larger picture of a pumpkin than they did in 1990. It is using a 2D image, instead of a one dimensional bar. This could be misleading as we could look at the overall area of the pumpkin, instead of just the height, and see an extremely large increase in sale, and not the actual increase. (Bluman, 2011)

I chose question 8 because of its prevalent use today. I have seen hundreds of TV and magazine advertisement that use the same exact phrase “may help”. With this study I have become more circumspect of those advertisements and would home that in the future I will not be as easily influenced by “may help”.

Question 12 caught my attention also, as it is used primarily in print for implying small increases in the topic at hand. I tend to read fast and have many times, implied a large change due to the misleading graph. The two dimensional use of graphing is targeted at people such as myself. I usually glance at a graph, not taking time to look at the values for “x” and “y”. I am unsure of how many...

...STAT 600 Statistics and Quantitative Analysis
PROJECT: Stock return estimation
The project must be done by 6-15 a.m. October, 16th. You should submit your projects before the class begins. This is a group project. Read the course outline for general guidelines. Good luck!
The project is closely related to Lectures 1-5 of the class.
Today is September 15, 2013 and you have just started your new job with a financial planning firm. In addition to studying for all your license exams, you have been asked to review a portion of a client’s stock portfolio to determine the risk/return profiles of 12 stocks in the portfolio. Unfortunately, your small firm cannot afford the expensive databases that would provide all this information with a few simple keystrokes, but that’s why they hired you. Specifically, you have been asked to determine the monthly average returns and standard deviations for the 12 stocks for the past five years.
The stocks (with their symbols in parentheses) are:
Apple Computer (AAPL) Hershey (HSY)
Archer Daniels Midland (ADM) Motorola (MOT)
Boeing (BA) Procter and Gamble (PG)
Citigroup (C) Sirius XM radio (SIRI)
Caterpilar (CAT) Wal-Mart (WMT)
Deere&Co. (DE)...

...
MBA 501A – [STATISTICS]
ASSIGNMENT 4
INSTRUCTIONS: You are to work independently on this assignment. The total number of points possible is 50. Please note that point allocation varies per question. Use the Help feature in MINITAB 16 to read descriptions for the data sets so that you can make meaningful comments.
[10 pts] 1. Use the data set OPENHOUSE.MTW in the Student14 folder. Perform the Chi
Square test for independence to determine whether style of home and location are are related. Use α = 0.05. Explain your results.
Pearson Chi-Square = 37.159, DF = 3, P-Value = 0.000
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square = 40.039, DF = 3, P-Value = 0.000
The P value associated with out chi square is 0.00 and the Alpha level is 0.05 so we reject the null hypothesis. The P- value is less than the alpha level. So, we conclude that style of homes and locations are not related.
[10 pts] 2. Use the data set TEMCO.MTW in the Student14 folder. Perform the Chi
Square test for independence to determine whether department and gender are related. Use α = 0.05. Explain your results.
Pearson Chi-Square = 1.005, DF = 3, P-Value = 0.800
Likelihood Ratio Chi-Square = 1.012, DF = 3, P-Value = 0.798
The P-value associated with out chi square is 0.800 and the Alpha level is 0.05 we can see that we are unable to reject the null hypothesis. The P- value is greater than the alpha level. So, we conclude that departments and gender are related..
[30 pts] 3. Use the data set...

...criterion we get the best model: y = -124.382 + 0.296X1 + 0.048X2 + 1.306X3 + 0.5198X4. This model contains all four predictor variables X1, X2, X3 and X4. This model is selected as best model by the MaxR criterion because it has the largest R-Square 0.9629, which is larger than 0.9615(model containing 3 variables), 0.9330(model containing 2 variables) and 0.8047(model containing 1 variable).
Below is a SAS output of the MaxR criterion.
Obviously, the “best” model obtained from MaxR criterion differs from that obtained from Stepwise and Backward Elimination Method. It is not hard to understand this phenomenon: Since for the Stepwise/Backward Elimination method, F-statistic plays an important role in selecting a variable: the F-statistic for a variable to be added must be significant at the SLENTRY level, the F-statistic for a variable to be removed must be significant at the SLSTAY level. While the MaxR method selects variables depending on which variable or variable combination can produce the largest R square. MaxR makes the switch that produces the largest increase in R square.
Appendix |
Code:
data job;
infile "C:\Users\sandra\Desktop\CH09PR10.txt";
input y x1 x2 x3 x4;
run;
proc reg data=job;
model y=x1 x2 x3 x4/selection=stepwise slstay=.10 slentry=.05;
title "Stepwise Selection";
run;
proc reg data=job;
model y=x1 x2 x3 x4/selection=adjrsq;
run;
proc reg data=job;
model y=x1 x2 x3...

...Lecture Notes on Introductory Statistics, I
(P.P. Leung)
Lecture notes are based on the following textbook:
N.A. Weiss (2012), Introductory Statistics, 9th edition, Pearson.
Chapter 1 The Nature of Statistics 統計本質
§1.1 Two kinds of Statistics
§1.4 Other Sampling Designs (其他抽樣方法)
Chapter 1 The Nature of Statistics 統計本質
What is Statistics? 何謂統計?
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia:
Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. It is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, from the natural and social sciences to the humanities. Statistics is also used for making informed decisions in government and business.
Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called descriptive statistics. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and then used to draw inferences about the process or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics. Both descriptive and inferential statistics comprise applied statistics. There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject....

...INTRODUCTION
A. Importance of Statistics
Statistical methods have been applied to problems ranging from business to medicine to agriculture. A review of the professional literature in almost any field will substantiate the extent of statistical analysis.
Accounting: Public accounting firms use statistical sampling procedures when conducting audits for their clients.
Economics: Economists use statistical information in making forecasts about the future of the economy or some aspect of it.
Marketing: Electronic point-of-sale scanners at retail checkout counters are used to collect data for a variety of marketing research applications.
Finance: Financial managers have routine contact with information in numerical form. Financial forecasts, break-even analyses, and investment decisions under uncertainty are but part of their activities.
Production: A variety of statistical quality control charts are used to monitor the output of a production process.
Statistics
the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, or interpretation of numerical data, especially as a branch of mathematics in which deductions are made on the assumption that the relationship between a sufficient sample of numerical data are characteristic of those between all such data.
it is a science which deals with the collection, organization, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of data.
B. Fields of Statistics
Descriptive...

...
Statistical Analysis
BU 510 601
2 Credit Hours
Fall 2013
Instructor: Shrikant Panwalkar Office phone: (410) 234 9456
Office Hours: By appointment panwalkar@jhu.edu
Required Text and Learning Materials
Business Statistics in Practice; 6th Edition, McGraw-Hill Higher Education,
ISBN-13 978-0-07-340183-6 (There are other ISBN numbers)
Authors: Bowerman, Bruce; O'Connell, Richard. (the cover shows a third author – Murphree)
Please note: 7th edition is available, however, we will NOT be using the 7th edition – please purchase the 6th edition
Additional learning material may be posted from time to time
Blackboard Site
A Blackboard course site is set up for this course. Each student is expected to check the site throughout the semester as Blackboard will be the primary venue for outside classroom communications between the instructors and the students. Students can access the course site at https://blackboard.jhu.edu. Support for Blackboard is available at 1-866-669-6138.
Course Evaluation
As a research and learning community, the Carey Business School is committed to continuous improvement. The faculty strongly encourages students to provide complete and honest feedback for this course. Please take this activity seriously because we depend on your feedback to help us improve so you and your colleagues will benefit. Information on how to complete the evaluation will be provided towards the end of the course....

...typically have? You take a random sample of 51 reduced-fat cookies and test them in a lab, finding a mean fat content of 4.2 grams. You calculate a 95% confidence interval and find that the margin of error is ±0.8 grams. A) You are 95% confident that the mean fat in reduced fat cookies is between 3.4 and 5 grams of fat. B) We are 95% confident that the mean fat in all cookies is between 3.4 and 5 grams. C) We are 95% sure that the average amount of fat in the cookies in this study was between 3.4 and 5 grams. D) 95% of reduced fat cookies have between 3.4 and 5 grams of fat. E) 95% of the cookies in the sample had between 3.4 and 5 grams of fat. Determine the margin of error in estimating the population parameter. 12) How tall is your average statistics classmate? To determine this, you measure the height of a random sample of 15 of your 100 fellow students, finding a 95% confidence interval for the mean height of 67.25 to 69.75 inches. A) 1.5 inches B) 0.25 inches C) 1.06 inches D) 1.25 inches E) Not enough information is given. 12) 11) 10)
3
Construct the indicated confidence interval for the difference between the two population means. Assume that the assumptions and conditions for inference have been met. 13) The table below gives information concerning the gasoline mileage for random samples of trucks of two different types. Find a 95% confidence interval for the difference in the means m X - m Y. Brand X Brand Y 50 50 20.1 24.3 2.3 1.8 13)...

...Oct. 10, 2012
1. Multiple and True/False Questions (10 points) Please circle the right answer for the questions below. Each question is assigned 2.5 points.
1. The sample mean of population 1 is smaller than that of population 2. If we are interested in testing whether the mean of population 1 is significantly smaller than the mean of population 2, the a. null hypothesis should state µ1 − µ2 < 0 b. null hypothesis should state µ1 − µ2 ≤ 0 c. alternative hypothesis should state µ1 − µ2 < 0 d. alternative hypothesis should state µ1 − µ2 > 0 ANSWER: c
2.
A Type I error is committed when a. a true alternative hypothesis is not accepted b. a true null hypothesis is rejected c. the critical value is greater than the value of the test statistic d. sample data contradict the null hypothesis ANSWER: b In determining an interval estimate of a population mean when σ is unknown, we use a t distribution with a. n − 1 degrees of freedom
3.
b. c. d. ANSWER: 4.
n degrees of freedom
n − 1 degrees of freedom n degrees of freedom c
The purpose of statistical inference is to provide information about the a. sample based upon information contained in the population b. population based upon information contained in the sample c. population based upon information contained in the population d. mean of the sample based upon the mean of the population ANSWER: b
FMBA SQA Final Exam
Prof. Kihoon Kim Oct. 10, 2012
2. (10 points) A researcher is...