How could graphics and/or statistics be used to misrepresent data? Where have you seen this done? Statistics are of value to us all. As learned throughout the readings for this week, they are there to provide us vast amount of data related to health care, including why a drug may be indicated for a certain treatment (or the likelihood of it working); parameters for disease signs and symptoms; and even the prevalence of certain disease(s) within our areas to ensure competent care can be provided for our community. As noted by Nursing Research (2011): “Health information is very often explained in statistical terms for making it concise and understandable (Basic Statistical Concepts, 2011, para. 1).” As established, statistics play a large role in research!! The bad news is, just like anything, statistical data can be misrepresented. The misrepresentation of data can occur in a number of ways. It can occur unintentionally as a result of human error (in either data collection of graphical creation); or intentionally through bias misleading (Graphical Misrepresentation, 2006). Unintentional misrepresentation can occur through bad sampling, which is usually conclusive of sampling a small group in order to represent characteristics of a larger group or population (Basic Statistical Concepts, 2011). For example, this may be seen in presidential elections. Say 100 people in Indiana were asked who they were going to vote for during the past presidential election, and the majority said Romney (for this example sake, we will say 60 people said they would vote for Romney). This data could be turned around to represent the nation (or even just the state of Indiana) saying 60% of people plan to vote for Romney; when inevitably, we learned Obama took the win. Other examples of misrepresentation may include simply picking a bad color to demonstrate in a graph, or using a graph that is not suitable for the data being displayed (Graphical Misrepresentation, 2006)....

...“Exercise 11 - Using Statistics to Describe a Study Sample”
“Name:” _Kris Bailey______________________________
“1. What demographic variables were measured at least at the interval level of measurement?”
“2. What statistics were used to describe the length of labor in this study? Were these appropriate?”
“3. What other statistic could have been used to describe the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“4. Were the distributions of scores similar for the experimental and control groups for the length of labor? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“5. Were the experimental and control groups similar in their type of feeding? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“6. What was the marital status mode for the subjects in the experimental and control groups? Provide both the frequency and percentage for the marital status mode for both groups.”
“7. Could a median be determined for the education data? If so, what would the median be for education for the experimental and the control groups? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“8. Can the findings from this study be generalized to Black women? Provide a rationale for your answer.”
“9. If there were 32 subjects in the experimental group and 36 subjects in the control group, why is the income data only reported for 30 subjects in the experimental...

...
Research and statistics for managerial decision making
Assignment 1
Mohammed Ahmed Ali
0170026
1.1 Four different beverages are sold at a fast food restaurant: soft drinks, tea, coffee, and bottled water.
Explain why the type of beverage sold is an example of a categorical variable
Explain why the type of beverage sold is an example of a nominal scaled variable
Categorical variables take values that fall into one or more categories. "Categorical variable is defined as data divided in categories as yes or no"(Chapter 1 Statistics for Manager 7th Edition). As there are 4 different types of drinks, they would all fall into their own categories rather than numerical.
A nominal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which no ranking is implied. The type of drinks sold is an example of a nominally scaled variable as there are no rankings involved
1.2 U.S. businesses are listed by size: small, medium, and large. Explain why business size is an example of an ordinal scaled variable
An ordinal scale classifies data into distinct categories in which ranking is implied. Ordinal scaling is a stronger form of measurement than...

...published by the
University of South Africa,
Muckleneuk, Pretoria.
DSC2602/1/2011
Cover: Eastern Transvaal, Lowveld (1928) J. H. Pierneef
J. H. Pierneef is one of South Africa’s best known artists.
Permission for the use of this work was kindly granted
by the Schweickerdt family.
The tree structure is a recurring theme in various branches
of the decision sciences.
Preface
Everyday life is full of decisions. What should I wear today? What should I eat? Should I buy
the red or blue shirt? Should I buy a speciﬁc house or buy a piece of land? What is the shortest
route from my house to work? . . . And many more.
Some of these decisions can be made without thinking or by guesswork. Some can be solved by
reasoning or emotions. Some are a bit more diﬃcult and may need additional information.
People have been using mathematical tools to aid decision making for decades. During World
War II many techniques were developed to assists the military in decision making. These developments were so successful that after World War II many companies used similar techniques in
managerial decision making and planning.
The decision making task of modern management is more demanding and more important
than ever. Many organisations employ operations research or management science personnel or
consultants to apply the principles of scientiﬁc management to problems and decision making.
In this module we focus on a number of useful models and...

...
Contents
Question 1 3
Question 2a 5
Question 2b 6
Question 2c 7
Question 3a 8
Question 3b 8
Question 3c 10
Question 3d 11
Question 4 12
Question 5 14
References 15
Question 1
The sampling method that Mr. Kwok is using is Stratified Random Sampling Method. In this case study, Mr Kwok collected a random sample of 1000 flights and proportions of three routes in the sample. He divides them into different sub-groups such as satisfaction, refreshments and departure time and then selects proportionally to highlight specific subgroup within the population. The reasons why Mr Kwok used this sampling method are that the cost per observation in the survey may be reduced and it also enables to increase the accuracy at a given cost.
TABLE 1: Data Summaries of Three Routes
Route 1
Route 2
Route 3
Normal(88.532,5.07943)
Normal(97.1033,5.04488)
Normal(107.15,5.15367)
Summary Statistics
Mean
88.532
Std Dev
5.0794269
Std Err Mean
0.2271589
Upper 95% Mean
88.978306
Lower 95% Mean
88.085694
N
500
Sum
44266
Summary Statistics
Mean
97.103333
Std Dev
5.0448811
Std Err Mean
0.2912663
Upper 95% Mean
97.676525
Lower 95% Mean
96.530142
N
300
Sum
29131
Summary Statistics
Mean
107.15
Std Dev
5.1536687
Std Err Mean...

...Trajico, Maria Liticia D.
BSEd III-A2
REFLECTION
The first thing that puffs in my mind when I heard the word STATISTIC is that it was a very hard subject because it is another branch of mathematics that will make my head or brain bleed of thinking of how I will handle it. I have learned that statistic is a branch of mathematics concerned with the study of information that is expressed in numbers, for example information about the number of times something happens. As I examined on what the statement says, the phrase “number of times something happens” really caught my attention because my subconscious says “here we go again the non-stop solving, analyzing of problems” and I was right. This course of basic statistic has provided me with the analytical skills to crunch numerical data and to make inference from it. At first I thought that I will be alright all along with this subject but it seems that just some part of it maybe it is because I don’t pay much of my attention to it but I have learned many things. I have learned my lesson.
During our every session in this subject before having our midterm examination I really had hard and bad times in coping up with this subject. When we have our very first quiz I thought that I would fail it but it did not happen but after that, my next quizzes I have taken I failed. I was always feeling down when in every quiz I failed because even though I don’t like this...

...utilise mathematical skills to solve problems mentally. The marks scored by pupils generate statistics which are used by teachers to analyse a student’s performance and development of theories to explain the differences in performance.
The Standard 3 class is where the transition from junior to senior level occurs where teachers expect the transference of concrete to abstract thinking would have occurred.
A common theory by many primary school teachers is ‘Students perform better in Mathematics than Mental math. Mental math is something that has to be developed and involves critical thinking. Mental math requires quick thinking and the student must solve the problem in their minds whereas in regular mathematics, the problem can be solved visually. Therefore, teachers should take these factors into consideration while testing and marking students in these areas.’
In this study, the statistics of 30 students of a standard 3 class of San Fernando Boys’ Government School will be analysed to determine the truth of this theory.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS
Mathematics and mental mathematics marks of term 1 of the class of 2013 were obtained from a Standard 3 teacher of San Fernando Boys’ Government School.
The marks were divided into the form:
Mathematics Marks, x
Mental Mathematics marks, y
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
Sample number
Marks earned (x)
x²
1
70
4900
2
86...

...Student Name _Shernika Smith___
Class Section _____092S ______
Reading Module #1
On Your Own
This activity gives you two reading passages with which to practice the Active Reading Strategies you learned in Reading Module #1.
Directions: Complete the activity by reading each passage and answering the questions. Do not forget to spell check and proofread your work. When you have completed this activity, please upload it to the Dropbox for this week.
Reading #1: The lie behind those gloomy national polls
Ask Americans how they feel about the world, said Michael Medved, and they wind up with a paradox.
Predicting |
Read the title and first sentence above. Now predict what you think the passage will be about. |
Your prediction about the passage: I think this is about Voting and the Election |
Now read the whole paragraph.
Ask Americans how they feel about the world, said Michael Medved, and they wind up with a paradox. By a staggering majority, people tell pollsters that they disapprove of both Congress and the President, and two out of three say the US is headed “in the wrong direction”. Yet when asked about their lives, “Americans express overwhelming contentment and dazzling confidence.” A recent Harris pole found that nine out of ten people are satisfied “with the life they lead,” with 56% choosing the highest category “very satisfied.” Almost everyone expects life to...