Mintzberg's 5 Ps

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Mintzberg's 5 Ps of Strategy
Developing a Better Strategy

What's your approach to developing strategy?
Many of us brainstorm opportunities, and then plan how we'll take advantage of them. Unfortunately, while this type of approach is important, we need to think about much more than this if we want to be successful. After all, there's no point in developing a strategy that ignores competitors' reactions, or doesn't consider the culture and capabilities of your organization. And it would be wasteful not to make full use of your company's strengths - whether these are obvious or not. Management expert, Henry Mintzberg, argued that it's really hard to get strategy right. To help us think about it in more depth, he developed his 5 Ps of Strategy – five different definitions of (or approaches to) developing strategy. About the 5 Ps

Mintzberg first wrote about the 5 Ps of Strategy in 1987. Each of the 5 Ps is a different approach to strategy. They are: 1. Plan.
2. Ploy.
3. Pattern.
4. Position.
5. Perspective.
By understanding each P, you can develop a robust business strategy that takes full advantage of your organization's strengths and capabilities. In this article, we'll explore the 5 Ps in more detail, and we'll look at tools that you can use in each area. 1. Strategy as a Plan

Planning is something that many managers are happy with, and it's something that comes naturally to us. As such, this is the default, automatic approach that we adopt – brainstorming options and planning how to deliver them. This is fine, and planning is an essential part of the strategy formulation process. Our articles on PEST Analysis, SWOT Analysis and Brainstorming help you think about and identify opportunities; the article on practical business planning looks at the planning process in more detail; and our sections on change management andproject management teach the skills you need to deliver the strategic plan in detail. The problem with planning, however, is that it's not enough on its own. This is where the other four Ps come into play. 2. Strategy as Ploy

Mintzberg says that getting the better of competitors, by plotting to disrupt, dissuade, discourage, or otherwise influence them, can be part of a strategy. This is where strategy can be a ploy, as well as a plan. For example, a grocery chain might threaten to expand a store, so that a competitor doesn't move into the same area; or a telecommunications company might buy up patents that a competitor could potentially use to launch a rival product. Here, techniques and tools such as the Futures Wheel, Impact Analysis andScenario Analysis can help you explore the possible future scenarios in which competition will occur. Our article on Game Theory then gives you powerful tools for mapping out how the competitive "game" is likely to unfold, so that you can set yourself up to win it. 3. Strategy as Pattern

Strategic plans and ploys are both deliberate exercises. Sometimes, however, strategy emerges from past organizational behavior. Rather than being an intentional choice, a consistent and successful way of doing business can develop into a strategy. For instance, imagine a manager who makes decisions that further enhance an already highly responsive customer support process. Despite not deliberately choosing to build a strategic advantage, his pattern of actions nevertheless creates one. To use this element of the 5 Ps, take note of the patterns you see in your team and organization. Then, ask yourself whether these patterns have become an implicit part of your strategy; and think about the impact these patterns should have on how you approach strategic planning. Tools such as USP Analysis and Core Competence Analysis can help you with this. A related tool, VRIO Analysis, can help you explore resources and assets (rather than patterns) that you should focus on when thinking about strategy. 4. Strategy as Position

"Position" is another way to define strategy - that...
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