Middle Ages and Major Changes

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INSTRUCTIONS:
1. READ THE DOCUMENTS ON THIS HANDOUT
2. ON A SEPARATE PICE OF PAPER ANSWER THE SCAFFOLD QUESTIONS AND WRITE A DBQ THHAT ADDRESSES THE TASKS SHOWN BELOW 3. YOUR ESSAY MUST HAVE AN INTRODUCTION, 3

Historical Content: Throughout history, changes in technology, artistic technique, and science have had a great influence on society. The development of the printing press and studying the human body and the development of linear perspective in art are 3 MAJOR CHANGES that had a impact on the development of Europe during the Renaissance.

TASK:
• Identify two of the major changes that occurred in the Renaissance • Explain if life became easier or more difficult with the new change.

DOCUMENT 1

The Book Before Gutenberg
The earliest books were written on scrolls. From the Second Century A.D. to the present time, however; most books have been produced in the familiar format – in other words, bound (attached) at one edge. During the Middle Ages, manuscript books were produced by monks who worked with pen and ink in a copying room known as a scriptorium. Even a small book could take months to complete, and a book the size of the Bible could take several years… Source: www.hrc.utexas.edu/exhibitions/permanent/gutenberg/2a.html

1. How were books made before the development of the Gutenberg press?

DOCUMENT 2

…Gutenberg’s methods spread with stunning rapidity. By 1500 an estimated half million printed books were in circulation: religious works, Greek and Roman classics, scientific texts. Columbus’s report from the New World. The Gutenberg press was one reason for the quick advancements in art and science during the Renaissance…. Source: Robert Friedman, ed. The Life Millennium: The 100 Most Important Events and People of the Past 1,000 Years, Time, 1998

2. Based on this document: state one effects of Gutenberg’s invention:

DOCUMENT 3

. . . In the Middle Ages to praise man was to praise (think highly of) God, for man was a creation of God. But Renaissance writers praised man himself as a creator. They played down the sinfulness he was born with and focused on his ability to think and act for himself, to produce works of art, to guide the destiny of others. They freed man from his the medieval hierarchy (social order), and allowed him to choose his own destiny, sometimes identifying himself with the brutes (mean people), sometimes with the angels. He was seen as the ruler of nature—the lord, although not God. This new vision of man came from a better understanding of self. Medieval men had been preoccupied with trying to be good Christians, but Renaissance men were much more intrigued (interested) with exploring, and being proud of, their own personalities.

Source: John R. Hale, Great Ages of Man: A History of the World’s Cultures: Renaissance, Time-Life, 1965

3. In what way did man’s view of the world change between the European medieval period and the Renaissance according to John R. Hale? DOCUMENT 4

Leonardo da Vinci studied the anatomy of the human body …To learn about the body, he dissected (cut up) and studied human corpses (dead bodies). Da Vinci was interested in the structure and the function of the various parts of the human body. His drawings reflect (show) what he learned as he studied.

Note: Leonardo da Vinci
recorded information in his
notebooks by writing backward.

Source: David Reuteler’s website,
“The Drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci”

4. According to this document, state one of Leonardo da Vinci’s contributions (to give to) to science.

DOCUMENT 5

SCHOOL OF ATHENS, BY RAPHAEL

Linear Perspective: One of the distinguishing features of Renaissance art was its development of highly realistic linear perspective. Perspective is a technique that shows the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface.

5. Describe how Raphael used shape,...
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